fruit-juices

អ្នកមិនអាចគេចផុតឡើយពីការវិវត្តន៍ទៅរកភាពចាស់ ប៉ុន្តែអ្នកអាចពន្យារនៃភាពចាស់របស់អ្នកបាន ដូចជាពាក្យមួយឃ្លាពោលថា«វាមិនសំខាន់ទេដែលអ្នកនឹងចាស់ អ្វីដែលសំខាន់តើអ្នកចាស់ដោយសារអ្វី»។ ដើម្បីអោយសម្រស់នៅក្មេងបានយូរ អ្នកត្រូវតែមានការយកចិត្តទុកដាក់ទៅលើបញ្ហា៣យ៉ាងគឺ ទីកន្លែងរស់នៅ ទឹក និងអាហារដែលអ្នកបរិភោគ។ នៅក្នុងនោះ ការទទួលទានអាហារជារឿងមួយដែលអ្នកគួរតែយកចិត្តទុកដាក់បំផុត ព្រោះតែអាហារមានច្រើនប្រភេទ ដែលពេលខ្លះអ្នកមិនដឹងទេថាអាហារទាំងនោះវាមានសារៈប្រយោជន៍ ឫ បំផ្លាញសុខភាព និង សម្រស់របស់អ្នក។ ការបរិភោគផ្លែឈើ និង បន្លែ ត្រូវបានគេចាត់ទុកជាអាហារល្អបំផុតសំរាប់សុខភាពដែលធ្វើអោយអ្នករក្សាភាពក្មេងជាងវ័យបានយូរ។ ខាងក្រោមនេះគឺជាបន្លែផ្លែឈើដែលមានប្រសិទ្ធិភាពបំផុតសំរាប់រក្សាសុខភាពសម្រស់របស់អ្នកអោយល្អ បូករួមជាមួយវិធីធ្វើងាយៗ ដើម្បីអោយអ្នកងាយស្រួលទទួលទាន។

១ ប៉េងប៉ោះក្រឡុក

fresh-tomato-juice-recipe

ប៉េងប៉ោះគឺជាបន្លែមួយប្រភេទដែលគេទទួលស្គាល់ថាមានប្រសិទ្ធិភាពបំផុតសំរាប់ប្រឆាំងនឹងភាពចាស់ ព្រោះប៉េងប៉ោះមានផ្ទុកនូវសារធាតុម៉្យាងដែលមានឈ្មោះថា លីកូពីន(Lycopene) ដែលសារធាតុម៉្យាងនេះមានតួនាទីថែរក្សានិងការពារស្បែករបស់អ្នកពីការបំផ្លាញរបស់បាក់តេរី និង ពន្លឺព្រះអាទិត្យ។ ខាងក្រោមនេះគឺជាវិធីធ្វើទឹកប៉េងប៉ោះក្រឡុកដែលមានរស់ជាតិឆ្ងាញ់ដែលអ្នកអាចញុំាបានរាល់ថ្ងៃ៖

គ្រឿងផ្សំ៖ ប៉េងប៉ោះ ទឹកដោះគោខាប់

វិធីធ្វើ

យកប៉េងប៉ោះដែលលាងស្អាតមួយចំនួនតាមបរិមាណដែលអ្នកចង់ញុំា។ ចិតវាចំណិតតូចៗ រួចយកវាទៅច្របាច់ក្នុងម៉ាស៊ីនយកតែទឹក ឫ អ្នកអាចកិនវាអោយម៉ត់ រួចត្រងយកទឹកក៏បាន។ បន្ទាប់មកអ្នកដាក់វាលាយជាមួយនឹងទឹកដោះគោខាប់ជាការស្រេច។ ទឹកដោះគោវានឹងជួយការបន្ថយជាតិក្រពល់នៅក្នុងប៉េងប៉ោះដែលធ្វើអោយទឹកប៉េងប៉ោះក្រឡុកនេះមានរស់ជាតិឆ្ងាញ់ដូចជាទឹកផ្លែឈើក្រឡុកផងដែរ ដែលធ្វើអោយអ្នកងាយស្រួលទទួលទានបំផុត។

២ ទឹកល្មាតជូរអែម

GT47_0313_tumeric_549x305

New York, NY: Tasting Table, GT, Good Taste, Equinox, Q, beverage, white, turmeric juice

ល្មាតមានតួនាទីចំប្បងបំផុតការប្រឆាំងនឹងភាពទ្រុតទ្រោម និង ការរលាកនៃស្បែក ព្រោះវាមានផ្ទុកនៅសារធាតុម៉្យាងដែលឈ្មោះថា Curcuminoids ដែលមានកំរិតជាតិ antioxidants ខ្ពស់បំផុត ហើយសារៈធាតុទាំងនេះវាមានប្រយោជន៍ដល់ស្បែកស្មើរនឹងវីតាមីនC&E។ ល្មាតជាប្រភេទគ្រឿងផ្សំម៉្យាងដែលប្រជាជនអាស៊ីភាគច្រើនយកវាមកលាបម៉ាស្សានៅលើស្បែកដើម្បីទទួលបានស្បែកសស្អាតពីធម្មជាតិ និងព្យាបាលស្បែកពីរបួសនិងស្នាកស្នាមផ្សេងៗ។ លើសពីនេះទៅទៀតល្មាតក៏ត្រូវបានគេយកមកបរិភោគផងដែរ ដូចជា ផ្សំជាមួយសម្លរ ឫ ប្រលាក់ជាមួយសាច់ជាដើម។ ខាងក្រោមនេះគឺជាវិធីធ្វើទឹកល្មាតដែលមានរស់ជាតិឆ្ងាញ់ដែលអ្នកអាចញុំាបានរាល់ថ្ងៃ៖

គ្រឿងផ្សំ៖ ម្សៅល្មាត(សំរាប់ធ្វើម្ហូប) ក្រូចឆ្មា និង ទឹកឃ្មុំឫស្ករ

វិធីធ្វើ

ដំបូងអ្នកគ្រាន់តែធ្វើទឹកក្រូចក្តៅមួយកែវ គឺត្រូវលាយក្រូចឆ្មា ទឹកឃ្មុំឫស្ករស ជាមួយនឹងទឹកក្តៅដាំពុះ។ បន្ទាប់់មកដាក់ម្សៅល្មាតមួយស្លាបព្រាកាហ្វេ កូរអោយសព្វ និង ទុកវាអោយត្រជាក់បន្តិចជាការសេ្រច។ ក្រូចឆ្មាជួយកាត់បន្ថយជាតិចត់នៅក្នុងល្មាត ដែលធ្វើទឹកល្មាតនេះមានរស់ជាតិឆ្ងាញ់ប្រហាក់ប្រហែលនឹងតែក្រូចឆ្មាផងដែរ ដែលធ្វើអោយអ្នកងាយស្រួលទទួលទានរាល់ថ្ងៃ។

៣ ទឹកឳឡឹក

2012-10-23-WatermelonDiet

ឪឡឹកមានគុណប្រយោជន៍បំផុតដល់ស្បែកព្រោះវាសំបូរទៅដោយជាតិទឹកនិងវីតាមីនC ដែលធ្វើអោយស្បែកមានសំណើម និង ភ្លឺរលោង។ លើសពីនេះទៅទៀតឪឡឹកក៏សំបូរទៅដោយជាតិរ៉ែ ជាតិដែក និង សារធាតុantioxidants ដែលប្រឆាំងនឹងភាពចាស់ជ្រីវជ្រួញបានល្អផងដែរ។ ខាងក្រោមនេះគឺជាវិធីធ្វើទឹកឪឡឹកដែលងាយស្រួលនិងមានរស់ជាតិឆ្ងាញ់ដែលអ្នកអាចញុំាបានរាល់ថ្ងៃ៖

គ្រឿងផ្សំ៖ ឪឡឹក ស្ករ(បើចាំបាច់)

វិធីធ្វើ

ចិតឪឡឹកយកសំបកវាចេញ រួចកាត់វាជាចំរៀកៗ យកគ្រាប់វាចេញតាមដែលអាចធ្វើបាន។ បន្ទាប់មកយកវាទៅកិនក្នុងម៉ាស៊ីនក្រឡុកអោយម៉ត់ ថែមស្ករបន្តិចបើសាប តែបើផ្អែមល្មមហើយជាការស្រេច។ អ្នកអាចទទួលទានទឹកឪឡឹកនេះជារៀងរាល់ថ្ងៃដោយគ្មានផលលំបាក ព្រោះវាមានរស់ជាតិឆ្ងាញ់និងចំណាយពេលតិចក្នុងការធ្វើនិងញុំា។

ដោយ៖ ស៊ុន ដាលីន

រូបថត៖ Google

 

 

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ការពពោះកូនជារឿងមួយដ៏លំបាកសំរាប់ស្រ្តីគ្រប់រូប ព្រោះចាប់តាំងពីពេលទារកចាប់កំណើតរហូតដល់ប្រសូត្រ ស្រ្តីតែងតែឆ្លងកាត់ការប្រែប្រួលជាច្រើនដែលនាំមកនូវផលរំខានដល់សុខភាពទាំងផ្លូវកាយ និងផ្លូវចិត្តរបស់ពួកគេ។ ស្រ្តីមួយចំនួនទទួលរងនូវឥទ្ធិពលនៃការមានផ្ទៃពោះដោយទទួលទានអាហារមិនបាន ចាញ់ក្លិន ចង់ក្អួត អស់កំលាំង ងងុយគេង និងពេលខ្លះគេងមិនលក់ក្នុងកំឡុងពេលពពោះទារក៣ខែដំបូង ខណៈពេលដែលស្រ្តីមួយចំនួនផ្សេងទៀតមានសភាពធម្មតា។ ដោយឡែក រឿងមួយដែលស្រ្តីមានផ្ទៃពោះគ្រប់រូបគេចមិនផុតគឺការឡើងទំងន់។ ក្នុងរយៈពេល៩ខែ១០ថ្ងៃនៃការរីកលូតលាស់របស់ទារកក្នុងផ្ទៃ ស្រ្តីជាម្តាយជាទូទៅឡើងទំងន់ជាមធ្យមពី ៨ ទៅ ១៦គីឡូក្រាម ព្រោះបរិមាណអាហារប្រចាំថ្ងៃដែលពួកគេទទួលទានមានការកើនឡើង ដើម្បីទៅផ្គត់ផ្គង់ទាំងសុខភាពម្តាយនិងទារក។ ដោយហេតុនេះហើយទើបធ្វើអោយស្រ្តីជាច្រើន ពើបប្រទះនឹងបញ្ហាឡើងទំងន់ខ្លាំង ឬ ទំងន់មិនស្រកទៅវិញក្រោយពេលសំរាលកូនរួច ដែលធ្វើអោយពួកគេបាត់បង់ទំនុកចិត្តលើខ្លួនឯង។ ខាងក្រោមនេះជាវិធី៣យ៉ាងងាយៗដែលអាចអោយស្រ្តីចុះទំងន់ឆាប់រហ័សក្រោយពេលដែលទារកប្រសូត្រ ៖

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១ កុំបង្អត់អាហារ

វាស្តាប់ទៅហាក់បីដូចជាផ្ទុយជាមួយនឹងអ្វីដែលស្រី្តជាទូទៅធ្វើនៅពេលដែលគេសម្រកទំងន់ ប៉ុន្តែការបង្អត់អាហារជាវិធីមិនល្អឡើយសំរាប់ស្រ្តីដែលទើបតែសំរាលទារកហើយ ព្រោះពួកគេត្រូវការអាហារជាចាំបាច់សំរាប់ទទួលបានជីវជាតិទៅបំពេញអ្វីដែលពួកគេបាត់បង់កំឡុងពេលសំរាលទារក។ លើសពីនេះទៅទៀត ការបង្អត់អាហារអាចធ្វើអោយពួកគេបាក់កំលាំង គ្មានទឹកដោះសំរាប់បំបៅកូន និង សុខភាពទ្រុតទ្រោម។ ជាងនេះទៅទៀត ការមិនទទួលទានអាហាររឹតតែធ្វើអោយស្រ្តីឃ្លានខ្លាំង ហើយនៅពេលដែលទ្រាំមិនបាន ពួកគេនឹងបរិភោគច្រើនជាងពេលធម្មតាដែលធ្វើអោយឡើងទំងន់កាន់តែលឿន។ ដូច្នេះ ស្រ្តីមិនគួរជ្រើសរើសយកវិធីនេះឡើយ ហើយផ្ទុយទៅវិញ ពួកគេគួរតែទទួលទានអោយបានទៀងទាត់ដោយជ្រើសរើសតែមុខម្ហូបណាដែលមានប្រយោជន៍ល្អដល់សុខភាព ដូចជា ត្រី បន្លែ ផ្លែឈើ ហើយហាមបរិភោគអាហារដែលមានជាតិខ្លាញ់ច្រើន និងជាតិផ្អែមខ្លាំងដែលផ្ទុកទៅដោយកាឡូរីខ្ពស់។ ការទទួលទានអាហារទៀងទាត់បែបនេះ ធ្វើអោយសុខភាពរបស់ស្រ្តីរឹងមាំ និងស្រកទំងន់បានឆាប់រហ័សតាមធម្មជាតិ។ ស្រ្តីគ្រប់រូបត្រូវចងចាំថា ការឡើងទំងន់របស់អ្នកគឺចាប់ផ្តើមតាំងពីកូនអ្នកចាប់កំណើតរហូតប្រសូត្រគឺមានរយៈពេលជិត១០ខែ ដូច្នេះវាមិនអាចស្រកទៅវិញក្នុងរយៈពេលតែមួយឬពីរសប្តាហ៍ក្រោយពេលដែលអ្នកសម្រាលកូនឡើយ។

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2 បំបៅដោះកូន

ក្រោយពេលសំរាលកូនរួច ការផ្តល់ទឹកដោះដល់ទារកជារឿងដំបូងនិងចាំបាច់ដែលម្តាយគ្រប់រូបត្រូវធ្វើ។ ស្រ្តីជាម្តាយមួយចំនួនជ្រើសរើសការបំបៅដោះកូនដោយធម្មជាតិ ឯស្រ្តីមួយចំនួនទៀតផ្តល់ទឹកដោះគោអោយកូនពួកគេ។ ទោះបីជាការបំបៅទឹកដោះគោមានភាពងាយស្រួលជាងការបំបៅដោះដោយម្តាយផ្ទាល់ក៏ដោយ ក៏ការផ្តល់អោយកូននូវទឹកដោះម្តាយមានសារៈសំខាន់ និងគុណប្រយោជន៍ច្រើនជាងការផ្តល់អោយកូននូវទឹកដោះគោដែរ ពោលគឺការបំបៅដោះកូនមិនត្រឹមតែធ្វើអោយប្រព័ន្ធការពាររបស់ពួកគេរឹងមាំ និងលូតលាស់ល្អនោះទេ វាថែមទាំងធ្វើអោយស្រ្តីជាម្តាយស្រកទំងន់បានឆាប់រហ័សទៀតផង។ ការបំបៅដោះប្រៀបដូចជាការបញ្ចូនជីវជាតិពីខ្លួនម្តាយទៅខ្លួនទារក ហេតុដូច្នេះហើយទោះបីជាស្រ្តីជាម្តាយបរិភោគអាហារច្រើនជាមុនក៏ដោយក៏មិនងាយធ្វើអោយស្រ្តីឡើងទំងន់ដែរ ព្រោះសារធាតុដែលពួកគេទទួលបានមិនមែនសំរាប់តែទ្រទ្រង់សុខភាពរបស់ពួកគេតែមួយមុខទេ តែពួកគេត្រូវផ្ទេរទៅអោយកូនរបស់គេផងដែរ។ ម៉្យាងទៀត នៅពេលដែលស្រ្តីជ្រើសរើសយកវិធីបំបៅដោះកូនដោយខ្លួនឯងផ្ទាល់ ពួកគេតែងតែប្រុងប្រយ័ត្នរាល់ពេលដែលពួកគេញុំាអាហារផ្សេងៗ ហើយការប្រុងប្រយ័ត្ននេះហើយដែលធ្វើអោយស្រ្តីមិនងាយនឹងជ្រើសរើសអាហារញុំាផ្តេសផ្តាសដែលទំងន់ឆាប់រហ័សផងដែរ។

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៣ ជ្រើសរើសវិធីហាត់ប្រាណងាយៗនិងហាត់អោយបានទៀងទាត់

ការហាត់ប្រាណមានសារៈសំខាន់បំផុតសំរាប់សុខភាពរបស់មនុស្សគ្រប់រូប។ បន្ទាប់ពី ស្រ្តីសំរាលកូនរួចនិងជាសះស្បើយពេញលេញ ពួកគេគួរតែយកចិត្តទុកដាក់ក្នុងការហាត់ប្រាណអោយបានទៀងទាត់ដើម្បីបណ្តេញនៅសារធាតុពុលពីក្នុងខ្លួន កាត់បន្ថយជាតិខ្លាញ់ដែលលើសពីក្នុងខ្លួន និងបន្តឹងស្បែកដែលយាធ្លាក់ក្រោយពេលសំរាលកូនអោយមកសភាពដើមវិញ។ ជាការពិតណាស់ ស្រ្តីជាម្តាយជាទូទៅតែងតែ ត្អូញត្អែរអំពីការជាប់រវល់នឹងកូនតូចរបស់ពួកគេ ដែលជាហេតុធ្វើអោយពួកគេមិនបានហាត់ប្រាណទៀងទាត់ ដែលធ្វើអោយរូបរាងកាយរបស់ពួកគេមិនអាចត្រលប់មករកសភាពមុនពេលពពោះទារកវិញ។ ដូច្នេះ ដើម្បីទទួលបានការហាត់ប្រាណទៀងទាត់ ស្រ្តីជាម្តាយត្រូវព្យាយាមរកវិធីសាស្រ្តហាត់ប្រាណងាយៗ ដែលពួកគេអាចធ្វើបានរាល់ថ្ងៃដោយមិនប៉ះបាល់ការមើលថែទារកតូចរបស់ពួកគេ។ ជាក់ស្តែង ស្រ្តីអាចជ្រើសរើសការនាំទារកដើរកំសាន្តពេលព្រឹក ឫ ពេលល្ងាច រយៈពេលពី២០ ទៅ៣០នាទី ដែលវាមិនត្រឹមតែធ្វើអោយទារកឆាប់សុំាទៅនឹងបរិយាកាសជុំវិញខ្លួនរបស់គេទេ តែក៏ធ្វើអោយស្រ្តីជាម្តាយបានធ្វើចលនារាងកាយ ដែលធ្វើអោយពួកគេឆាប់ទទួលរូបរាងកាលពីមុនមកវិញ។ ម៉្យាងវិញទៀត ស្រ្តីជាម្តាយអាចធ្វើលំហាត់ប្រាណផ្សេងៗរាល់ពេលដែលទារកគេងលក់ ដូចជា ការដើរឫរត់ជុំវិញផ្ទះឫក្នុងបន្ទប់ ការរាំ ឫ ហាត់យូហ្គាជាដើម។ ការឆ្លៀតធ្វើលំហាត់ប្រាណបែបនេះរាល់ថ្ងៃ មិនត្រឹមតែមិនប៉ះពាល់ដល់ការមើលថែកូនរបស់ពួកគេទេ តែវានឹងធ្វើអោយស្រ្តីជាម្តាយមានរូបរាងស្រស់ស្អាតឡើងវិញយ៉ាងឆាប់រហ័ស។

2

Woman in exercise clothes with baby jogger.

ដោយ៖ ស៊ុន ដាលីន

ប្រភព៖ WebMD (Health&Pregnancy)

រូបភាព៖ Google

កំឡុងពេលដែលកុមារលូតលាស់ចូលដល់អាយុ៤ខែឡើងទៅ បបរសុខភាពគឺចាំបាច់បំផុតសំរាប់សុខភាពរបស់ពួកគេ ដើម្បីបំពេញបន្ថែមជាមួយទឹកដោះម្តាយឬទឹកដោះគោ​ ព្រោះវាសំបូរទៅដោយជីវជាតិ​ និង វីតាមីនសំខាន់ៗសំរាប់ទ្រទ្រង់កាយសម្បទាកុមារអោយមានភាពរឹងមាំ​​​ និង រហ័សរហួន។ ដូច្នេះ មាតាបិតា​ និង អាណាព្យាបាលគ្រប់រូបគួរតែយកចិត្តដាក់ចំអិនវាអោយកូនតូចរបស់អ្នកញុំកុំបីខាន។ ខាងក្រោមនេះគឺជារូបមន្តភាពចំនួន៣ តំរូវតាមអាយុកូនតូចរបស់អ្នក។

vegetablepureesBig

១/ បបរដំឡូងជ្វាសំរាប់ក្មេង ៤ខែដល់៦ខែ

ដំឡូងជ្វាគឺល្អបំផុតសំរាប់ប្រព័ន្ធរំលាយអាហារដ៏ទន់ខ្សោយរបស់កូនតូច មានរស់ជាតិផ្អែមឆ្ងាញ់ ហើយងាយស្រួលរកទិញ និង មានតំលៃសមរម្យ​  ដូច្នេះហើយវាគឺពេញនិយមបំផុតសំរាប់យកមកធ្វើបបរសុខភាពសំរាប់ក្មេងពី៤ខែ​ ដល់​៦​​​ ខែ។ ដំបូង អ្នកត្រូវជ្រើសរើសដំឡូងល្អៗតាមបរិមាណដែលអ្នកចង់បាន ហើយយកដំឡូងនោះទៅស្ងោរ ឬ ចំហុយអោយច្អិន(អ្នកអាចលាយជាមួយអង្ករ ឬ សណ្តែកបាយ)។ បន្ទាប់ អ្នកអាចយកវាទៅកិន​ ឬ ក្រឡុកអោយម៉ត់ខៃ។ ជាចុងបញ្ចប់ អ្នកគ្រាន់តែដួសវាដាក់ចានដែលស្អាត រួចទុកវាអោយត្រជាក់ល្មម នោះអ្នកនឹងអាចបញ្ចុកកូនរបស់អ្នកបានហើយ។ ចំណាំ បបរដំឡូងនេះ អាចទុកក្នុងទូរទឹកកក ផ្នែកមិនកករហូតទៅដល់​ ៣ថ្ងៃ ហើយទុកក្នុងផ្នែកកក រហូតទៅដល់​ ៣​ខែ។

sweet-potato-2

២/ បបរល្ពៅសំរាប់ក្មេង ៦ខែ ដល់​ ៨​ខែ

ល្ពៅជាប្រភេទបន្លែដែលសំបូរទៅដោយវីតាមីនសេ ជាតិដែក និងជីវជាតិជាច្រើនមុខទៀត ហើយលើសពីនេះទៅទៀត វាមានជាតិសសៃខ្ពស់ ព្រមទាំងជាតិខ្លាញ់និង​កាឡូរីតិច។ ដំបូង អ្នកត្រូវជ្រើសរើសល្ពៅដែលមានសាច់ស្អិតល្អតាមបរិមាណដែលអ្នកចង់បាន ហើយយកល្ពៅនោះទៅស្ងោរដោយលាយជាមួយ អង្ករ សាច់ ស៊ុត អំបិលបន្តិច និង បន្លែបៃតងផ្សេងៗ​ដែលអ្នកចង់ ដូចជាត្រកួន ស្ពៃជាដើម ព្រមទាំងបន្ថែមប្រេងអូលីវបន្តិចកាន់តែល្អ។ បន្ទាប់ ពីចំអិនវាច្អិន អ្នកអាចយកវាទៅកិន ឬ ក្រឡុកអោយម៉ត់ខៃ។ ជាចុងបញ្ចប់ អ្នកគ្រាន់តែដួសវាដាក់ចានដែលស្អាត រួចទុកវាអោយត្រជាក់ល្មម នោះអ្នកនឹងអាចបញ្ចុកកូនរបស់អ្នកបានហើយ។ ចំណាំ បបរល្ពៅនេះ អាចទុកក្នុងទូរទឹកកក ផ្នែកមិនកកសំរាប់ប្រើថ្ងៃបន្ទាប់ ហើយទុកក្នុងផ្នែកកក រហូតទៅដល់ ១ខែ។

pumpkin_04

៣/ បបរផ្កាខាត់ណាសំរាប់ក្មេង ៨ខែឡើងទៅ

ផ្កាខាត់ណាជាប្រភេទបន្លែដែលសំបូរទៅដោយវីតាមីនសេ  និងជាតិសរសៃ សំរាប់ប្រព័ន្ធរំលាយអាហារក្មេង៨ខែឡើងទៅ។​ ដំបូង អ្នកត្រូវជ្រើសរើសផ្កាខាត់ណាដែលល្អតាមបរិមាណដែលអ្នកចង់បាន ហើយយកផ្កាខាត់ណានោះទៅស្ងោរដោយលាយជាមួយ អង្ករ សាច់ ស៊ុត អំបិលបន្តិចនិង បន្លែបៃតងផ្សេងៗដែលអ្នកចង់ ដូចជាត្រកួន ស្ពៃជាដើម ព្រមទាំងបន្ថែមប្រេងអូលីវបន្តិចកាន់តែល្អ។ បន្ទាប់ ពីចំអិនវាច្អិន អ្នកអាចយកវាទៅកិន ឬ ក្រឡុកអោយម៉ត់ខៃ។ ជាចុងបញ្ចប់ អ្នកគ្រាន់តែដួសវាដាក់ចានដែលស្អាត រួចទុកវាអោយត្រជាក់ល្មម នោះអ្នកនឹងអាចបញ្ចុកកូនរបស់អ្នកបានហើយ។ ចំណាំ បបរខាត់ណានេះ អាចទុកក្នុងទូរទឹកកក ផ្នែកមិនកកសំរាប់ប្រើថ្ងៃបន្ទាប់ ហើយទុកក្នុងផ្នែកកក រហូតទៅដល់ ១ខែ។

Cauliflower

​​​​​ដោយ: អុីណាវេ

ដកស្រង់ព័ត៏មានពី: វេបសាយ Parents

រូបភាព: Google Pictures

ព័ត៏មានបន្ថែម: horribleuncle@hotmail.com

Picture1

Image  —  Posted: May 9, 2014 in Uncategorized

Note: The following work is written by Yang Chandara, Chan Seyha, Nget Kandavith, Hun Keoveasna, Samreth Sodh, Seng Litor, Yav Sokhim and Ket Monyvathana. The work is done under my supervision.

What is Media Bias? Media bias is the tendency for the media to represent different people in a particular way based on their own views, the views of their sponsors, and possibly the views of society. Bias in the media involves many types, and these include bias by commission, omission, story selection, placement, source election, spin, labeling, policy endorsement and condemnation. This paper will however only focus on three of the many types of media bias: “Bias by Omission”; “Bias by Story/Source Selection”; and “Bias by Spin” around the issues of the U.S. 2012 campaign.

The media-aided approach during the U.S. 2012 campaign deeply interests me because I wish to answer my hypothesis which is that a political party tends to win in an election if the party is more covered on media than are its counterparts. On this note, I am so much curious about how the media coverage for each political party contributes to the result of the upcoming election in the U.S.

Particularly, “Bias by Omission”, later referred to Omission, is defined as (1) leaving out one side of a particular argument for a considerable length of time, and (2) ignoring facts that potentially refute the other side. “Bias by Story/Source Selection”, later referred to Story/Source Selection, refers to articles whose news stories coincide with the conservative group’s agenda while ignoring the liberal group’s. This type of bias can also be seen when a writer includes more sources that support one side of the story over another by using some remarkable phrases such as “experts believe”, “observers say,” or “most people believe”. “Bias by Spin”, later referred to Spinning, refers to a state where there is only one interpretation from one side, excluding the other equally relevant side. This kind of bias involves the reporter’s tone, subjective comments and individual judgment about the existing facts. 

More specifically, the three types of media bias are to be discussed in the 8 Washington Post articles and 8 New York Times articles which were written during February and March, 2012 on the two prominent presidential wannabes, namely Barack Obama and Mitt Romney.   

 

There are mainly three types of media bias found in the 16 articles.

1. Omission`

The article written by Rucker is extremely biased toward Romney rather than Obama. The writer raised up the US military mission. He quoted nearly all of what Romney criticized Obama and his administration. Moreover, the writer talked repeatedly about Romney’s speeches that blasted Obama on putting military in a dangerous state. What’s more, Romney was given a chance to say what he had agreed or disagreed with the US and NATO. In this regard, Obama was given so little space to react to what Romney said – he was allowed to opine in only a few sentences about his plan to withdraw military  (Rucker 2012)

Romney was given 31% to put up his group and blame Obama on gasoline and energy prices which has been higher and higher. Furthermore, he asked Obama to remove his three cabinet officers from position. However, Obama was quoted of 38% to support all the decisions made by him and his party (BRONDER 2012).

Farnam (2012) quoted so many of Romney’s words about Obama’s weakness and gave no chance or space to Obama to fight back. Besides, Romney wanted to imply that he could do better than Obama if he were the current president of the US.

Obama talked about two important issues – rising gas price and health-care law. He got 27% to mention publicly about his strategy in order to respond to those problems and fought back strongly to the republicans, specifically Romney. On the other hand, Romney was given a 5% in the article to cast his comments, responding to only one of the two major issues raised earlier by Obama. On this note, Obama gains support from readers by turning his political weakness into strength as well as receiving positive points on both issues that will be an advantage for his coming re-election in November (Gardner and Wilson 2012).

Landler (2012) gave chance to both Obama and Romney to present some issues on the strength of America. Particularly, the writer allowed Romney to project his perspective on the subject matter more than Obama. Obviously, the Romney’s perspective was to attack Obama. Nevertheless, Obama was not given an opportunity to react to Romney. Hence, Obama was not bound to be supported much in this case.

Gay (2012) covered very much on Romney when he raised the issues of health care system while Obama’s administration was showed to give so few feedbacks on this  issue. In particular, Obama was quoted to have used a very general term as “health plan” to respond to those specific strategy projected clearly by Romney. In fact, R.  Santorum and Gignrich also got invovled in this article – mocking Romney; however, their attack on Romney didn’t affect the analysis on the media bias, omission, between Romney and Obama’s business. Thus, Romney was dominant so much in this article, and he was presented as very determined to achieve his bunch of strategies. Notably, this news article was totally influenced by Romney’s  health care service on abortion issue which Obama was not seen to respond.

Rucker (2012) mostly touched mainly on what Romney had said about Obama’s weak points and it did not allow Obama to respond. In this regard, the author seemed to show only one-sided voice from Romney and let him takes full advantage of showing his strategy and obtaining trust and popularity from the people of America.

Shear (2012) mentioned only the achievement of Romney without letting Obama present his results and respond to what Romney offensively of him.

2. Story/Source Selection

            Rubin (2012) showed that after Obama won the presidential election, the American economy still got nowhere better. By seeing this weak point, the author tended to select the story that was based on economic field to downgrade Obama’s credibility yet to give credit to Romney.  The good points of free marketing strategy by Romney had been raised to show that there would be a good solution that somehow improved the America’s economy.

Balz (2012) stressed on the potentiality of Romney’s business. It could be inferred that the readers may think that Romney must make a good leader for them because Romney is now projected as a successful businessman; therefore, he will be able to solve the serious problems in America if he is voted President of the US.

Eggen (2012) used the word “Americans” who show such strong support to Obama. The word “Americans” is meant to represent all the people in the U.S while in fact it only refers to a pool of supportive people.

Nakamura (2012) chose only the famous people for Obama including political consultant, producer and his wife. The first lady here refers to Michelle Obama which was delivering her speech for fundraising. It can be implied that besides Obama himself, he has another person to help as well as to gain fund for his campaign. It can impact that when Hollywood or famous people in Hollywood support Obama, the fans of Hollywood will support Obama too.

Mr. Alan B. Krueger, the chairman of the president’s Council of Economic Adviser, and some private sector forecasters were chosen to talk very highly about the Obama’s project after it is confirmed that the project is a success story while none of Romney’s expert, supporter, or Romney himself was interviewed to give their opinions on the other side of the story (Calmes 2012).

Since US encountered the economic crisis, none of presidential candidate has proved any effective step to recover. Therefore, there is so need of someone who has a sure-work policy to shoot this problem out. Still, the financial problem in US remains a big challenge. Meanwhile, this news article immediately switched to advertise the potentiality of Romney over this problem, which surely helps Romney to heighten his status. Moreover, it shows that he was supported by many of the caucus goers who mainly involved in the politics (Zeleny 2012).      

McIntire (2012) quoted only Obama’s high-ranking officials’ speech, while no one from Romney’s was interviewed.

Confessore (2012) showed only the supporting sources from the Romney’s side. Moreover, those sources were the big shots in politics such Robert Garff, Ron Kaufman,and Wayne McCormack. The author chose to talk only about the achievements and effort of Romney; therefore, it led the people to a thought that Romney would be qualified for the presidential post for he was able to erase the scandal of Olympic game in 2002.

3. Spinning

            Sonmez (2012) illustrated a very strong supportive voice from a high-ranking supporter of Romney. Choosing to write about who supports Romney can promote Romney’s popularity and therefore people see Romney as the most potential person to be elected.   

Almost all the sentences were about Romney, and most of them supported him. The writer described Romney in so many good terms—committed, conservative, and experienced. However, Romney was projected to have ever delivered a message which no one could understand its meaning. Particularly, he spoke without preparation—he said whatever he wanted. From this, some of electorates need to doublecheck whether they should trust the person who sent unclear messages or not. On the other hand, the writer still admired Romney and he dared to say that Romney “must win and keep winning”. These sentences show obviously that the writer exactly supports Mitt Romney and wants him to become the president (Balz 2012).

The word “brighter”, which was described by Obama’s advisor, consists a muscular tone of supporting Obama. Somehow, the author wanted to add that Obama is full of light or intelligent in this context. What about Romney? Isn’t he so bright to be said about? (Cohen 2012)

The term “too” expresses negative meaning already. Obama complained in this article that he spent too much money on his campaign. Therefore, if he is elected to be the president, the people would think he will spend the national budget carelessly as he did during his election campaign. It means that Obama lose some credit already especially in terms of managing public finance (Farnam 2012).

Calmes (2012) obviously showed supportive tone to Obama that he really had a good plan and map to deal with the economic crisis in the US. That is, it could be seen by the people that Obama must be the reliable person to help Americans in the next mandate.

The informative quote effectively persuaded and re-built the supporters’ trust. Thus, he indirectly implied his own expectation to help promote his status and to gain his much-needed votes. The success in Nevada might have influenced some pro Obama people’s perception about their political stand after hearing Romney’s claim that he would decrease the employment rate faster than Obama did. The writer also covered Romney’s potential ability and his experience as a businessman (Zeleny 2012).

McIntire (2012) and Cooper (2012) illustrated a supportive term “strength of Obama”, which was used to convince the reader that Obama is truly a good leader. However, the connection between Obama and his donor who was proved to be a criminal upsets the Obama’s followers to some extent.

Confessore (2012) mentioned deeply about Romney’s registered lobbyists; the donation of those lobbyists to Romney; and the contributions to restoring the situation of Winter Olympics. This would probably make the people think that Romney is an influential person because most of the powerful and prominent people in the society have been taking his side.

            In conclusion, the three types of media bias found in the 8 articles of New York Times and 8 articles of Washington Post are very obvious to see. In particular, according the statistical tables, both the Times and the Post tend to give more space, choose positive side of the story/source and use supportive words towards Romney than towards Obama. Statistically, while the Times and the Post support Obama in respect to the three types of media bias of about 17% and 13% correspondingly, it gives Romney a double figure of about 33% and 29% respectively. However, the two media outlets criticize Romney thrice and twice correspondingly higher than it does to Obama. In retrospective, the media influence has been shown to have been playing a very crucial role in the election campaign in the US. 

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 Rubin, Jennifer. The Washington Post. February 14, 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/right-turn/post/romney-takes-on-big-labor-and-crony-capitalism/2012/02/14/gIQA5GUYDR_blog.html (accessed February 14, 2012).

 Rucker, Philip. “The Washington Post.” http://www.washingtonpost.com. February 01, 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/election-2012/post/romney-criticizes-us-decision-to-end-afghan-combat-next-year/2012/02/01/gIQAkY6GjQ_blog.html (accessed March 20, 2012).

 Shear, Michael D. March 14, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/15/us/politics/romneys-challenge-showing-that-winning-doesnt-always-matter.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&sq=mitt%20romney%20and%20obama&st=cse&scp=2 (accessed March 28, 2012).

 The Washington Post. Post Politics. Felicia Sonmez. February 14, 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/election-2012/post/romney-camp-well-win-idaho/2012/02/14/gIQAf7ppDR_blog.html (accessed February 14, 2012).

 Zeleny, Jim Rutenberg and Jeff. New York Times. February 4, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/05/us/politics/nevada-caucuses.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=Romney%20scores%20Nevada%20Victory%20With%20Broad%20G.O.P.%20Support&st=cse (accessed February 5, 2012).

Annex: Statistics tables

 

New York Times

Washington Post

Total sentences

429

251

 

Pro Obama

Against Obama

Pro Obama

Against Obama

Omission

2.7%

NA

4.7%

NA

Selection of Story and Source

7.9%

3.2%

6.3%

NA

Spinning

6.9%

1.8%

2.3%

1.1

Total

17.5%

5%

13.3%

1.1%

 

 

Pro Romney

Against Romney

Pro Romney

Against Romney

Omission

11.4%

0.4%

9.1%

NA

Selection of Story and Source

6.5%

6.5%

1.1%

NA

Spinning

15.6%

9.3%

19.1%

2.7%

Total

33.5%

16.2%

29.3%

2.7%

 

 

 

 

Cambodia and Vietnam Relation

Note: The following composition is written by Dara Saoyuthnea, Cheng Mengchou, Yav Sokhim and Hun Keoveasna. The writing process is done under my supervision.

ACRONYMS:

ACFTA: ASEAN-China Free Trade Area / APEC: Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation / ASEAN: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations / ASEANFTA: Asean Free Trade Area / CAFTA: China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement / CDC: Council for Development of Cambodia / FDI: Foreign Direct Investment / FTA: Free Trade Area / GDP:               Gross domestic product / GNP: Gross national product / IPR: Intellectual property rights / LDCs: Least Developed Countries / MFN: Most Favored Nation / MOC: Ministry of Commerce / NTR: Normal trade relations / SEATEs:         The Southeast Asian Transitional Economies / SME: Small and medium enterprise / TIFA: Trade and Investment Framework Agreement / TPP: Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement / UNDP: United Nations Development Programme / UNTAC: United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia / WTO:World Trade Organization

Introduction:

The ASEAN is a geo-political and economic organization of ten countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Since then, membership has expanded to include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Its aims include accelerating economic growth, social progress, and cultural development among its members, protection of regional peace and stability, and opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully (association of southeast asian nations 2011). After Cambodia and Vietnam have been members of ASEAN, these two countries have close relations. Vietnam is already Cambodia’s 10th largest foreign investor, as well as Cambodia’s third strongest trade partner within ASEAN, and the sixth largest amongst all of Cambodia’s current trading partners. Cambodia and Vietnam enjoy very complementary economies, along with similar consumer demands and habits, which combined with 1,137 km of border area, results in an incredible potential for substantial bilateral trade growth with vast possibilities for increased mutual benefits. Two ways trade between Cambodia and Vietnam has enjoyed strong growth in the last few years, but only recently has economic relations between the two countries received a significant boost. The signing of key bilateral agreements along with Cambodia’s faltering trade with Thailand during the last few months provided a recent push to trade between Cambodia and Vietnam, with figures reaching $1.7 billion in 2008. Recent investments and agreement between both countries are expected to further expand bilateral economic relations and trade in the next following years (Asia Economic Institute n.d.). Therefore, the paper is going to compare the economic development of Cambodia and Vietnam in a few remarkable areas:

1)      The similarities between Cambodia and Vietnam.

2)      Compare domestic and foreign economic development of Cambodia and Vietnam in terms of agriculure productions.

3)      The challenges facing agricultural development in Cambodia.

Moreover, this paper is going to illustrate the trade relationship of these two countries with other nations:

1)      Cambodia and China

2)      Cambodia and US

3)      Vietnam and US

The similarities between Cambodia and Vietnam:

To begin with, of the 10 regional countries, Cambodia belongs to the lowest income group, known as SEATEs. The SEATEs include four countries, namely Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam and Cambodia. In other words, Cambodia and Vietnam belong to the same lowest income group back to last 17 years. In 1995, the SEATEs had a per capita gross national product (GNP) of between $200 and $350. In the same year, the so-called ASEAN-6, namely Brunei, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, had a per capita GNP of between $1,000 and $27,000 (Chan Sophal 1998).

Agriculture:

Another similarity between Cambodia and Vietnam on domestic economic development is dominated by subsistence agriculture. Cambodia has succeeded in generating high economic growth in its recent history; nearly a decade long of rapid growth had a significant impact on income per capita with more than a doubling from $288 in 2000 to $900 in 2009. As a result, Cambodia is one the few countries that have achieved sustained rapid growth: of 194 countries with data, 46 have achieved 7 percent annual growth on average for 14 consecutive years (Sok Siphana 2011). We have noticed that from 1998 to 20007 Cambodia’s growth performances ranks 6th in the world.  With vast flat agricultural lands and access to a number of big rivers and their tributaries, Cambodia has potential to be a significant agricultural net exporter to foreign countries. From food self-sufficient to food export: Cambodia has developed its economy based on agriculture as a core sector. Starting from surviving Khmer Rouge regime in 1979, the country had to produce foodstuff to feed its population. The basic policies for development of agricultural, forestry and fisheries sectors from 2001 to 2005 are: to continue to focus on food security, especially at community and household level, and reduce poverty of the poor, the highest rate in agricultural sector, to increase food production, especially rice production and subsidiary crops, to contribute to the national economy growth through the exportation of surplus agricultural products, to improve the quality of agricultural products and increase value added by promotion of development of agri-industrial processing including the creation of new jobs for rural areas, to increase family income and reduce poverty through diversity crop production, high yield, and low production cost, to manage the natural resource through regulation and technical measures for sustainable exploitation (Sok Siphana 2011).

At the same time, agricultural reform is the most significant to the cause of economic development and poverty reduction of Vietnam- a country with 75% population and 90% the poor living in rural area. From a country that was always short of food and had to import 0.5- 1 million tons of food to meet the peoples demands annually (Nguyen Thi Ngoc Huyen n.d.). Vietnam has become a food exporter. It is now the world’s second biggest rice exporter. It is now the world’s second biggest rice exporter, right behind Thailand. Moreover, in Vietnam, food gain production development, agricultural restructuring towards developing high-value industrial and fruit tree like coffee, rubber, cashew, litchi, longan, etc, as well as strong development of agriculture, including domestic animals, fowls and forestry have been paid special attention in Vietnam. Vietnam now is the world’s biggest peppercorn exporter, and the third biggest coffee and rubber exporter (Nguyen Thi Ngoc Huyen n.d.)

Even though, agriculture in Cambodia has improved much better than it was in the past but it still lack far behind Vietnam in few remarkable areas which led Vietnam the world’s biggest exporter in key main items discussed above.  There are different inter-related challenges facing agricultural development in Cambodia which prevent Cambodia less developed in term of economic like Vietnam. These are poor performances in regional trade, speculative land price distortions, un-performing economic land concessions, brain drain, finance, market information, and infrastructure.

The challenges in Cambodia:

Poor performance in regional trade: Cambodia has not benefited as it should have from regional markets (only 13 percent of its trade is intra-regional, against an average of 49 percent) (Sok Siphana 2011). A tremendous potential to integrate further into the Asia region with preferential market access to development partner countries like China, India, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and South Korea.

Weak cross border trade facilitation: In the World Bank “Doing Business” rankings for 2010, Cambodia are ranked 22nd out of 24 East Asia and Pacific nations in the overall index and 21st out of 24 in the “trading across frontiers” index.
Speculative land price distortions: Cambodia still suffers from the perverse effects of the land price distortions arising from the speculative bubbled of the pre-global financial crisis years, which is diluting Cambodia’s perceived comparative advantages of a country with a relatively abundant land, natural assets, and inexpensive labor.
Underperforming Economic Land Concession (ELC): The ELC approach has no delivered the expected results. Out of some 60 ELC, but only a small fraction of these are have actively invested in the concessions, and many of others still entangled in numerous conflicts with indigenous communities over traditional use of land and forest and, by law, a right to this use.

Reversing the brain drain: In the labor market, the major challenge is to ensure that those educated labor market which have benefited in recent years from the exposure to higher labor productivity jobs outside of agriculture, i.e. in industry and services, be reallocated back to agriculture, a phenomenon which can have a significant impact on growth and provide the necessary incentives for reverse migration back to the rural areas.

The intractable sanitary and phytosanitary issues: Cambodia does not have a compliant basic sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary management system in place at the moment, which allows its exports of livestock and the fisheries products to key markets like the EU and China, for example.

Finance Shortage: There are four main challenges for the rice export of Cambodia: lack of capital to buy unmilled rice surplus from farmers is the most important issue, lack of rice storage capacity, low level of unmilled rice drying capacity, and not enough middlemen. For the year, 2010, Cambodia’s local middlemen could buy only 0.5 million tons while 3 million and 8 thousand tons of rice were exported to Thailand and Vietnam for further processing and packaging. According to some experts, it needs additional $800 million in order to buy all unmilled rice surplus from the local farmers (Sok Siphana 2011).

Lack of market information: Cambodian farmers do not get access to updated accurate market price data for their products. For instance, with 166,600 productive rubber plantations, Cambodia produces about 60,000 tons per year. But Cambodia’s rubber is being undersold at about $4,500 per ton, about ten percent less than other rubber producing countries like Malaysia (Sok Siphana 2011).

Weak production infrastructure:

  • Lack of irrigation facilities: Approximately 7 percent of cropland is irrigated, the lowest in all Southeast- East Asia. The dependence of the agriculture sector on rainfall subjects the sector to weather vulnerability.
  • Inadequate fertilizer usage: Fertilizer usage in Cambodia is significantly lower than in neighboring countries like Vietnam at about 5-6 kg/ha, much lower than the average in the region. Only 27 percent of rain-fed farms use inorganic fertilizers, compared to 70 percent of dry season farmers who have access to irrigation (Sok Siphana 2011).
  • Weak collective actions: Currently no credible private sector organization for collective action exists in the agriculture sector as a whole or at the sectoral level, like rice or cashew, although there is numerous rice milling associations whose membership is diffuse both geographically and politically.

Cambodia and Vietnam Trade:

Cambodia earns less from trades and investments than Vietnam does between the two countries. Cambodia has for long become a good market for Vietnam because Cambodian people prefer Vietnam’s goods and products to those of Thailand (AKP 2009). Cambodia opens for international investment in some important factors such as: hydropower, mining, cultivation of industrial plants, and telecommunication; as a result, Vietnam has been enjoying a good chance to invest in Cambodia (AKP 2009). For instance, the trade between the two countries in 2008 was worth $1.7 billion of which Vietnam’s export to Cambodia was around $1.47billion. Moreover, Vietnam invests in many factors in Cambodia. Vietnamese investments generally focuses on major fields in Cambodia such as transportation, banking, tourism, agriculture, power, rubber, aviation, health, oil, and gas (VBN 2011), while seafood, corn, tobacco and rubber are Cambodia’s key export to Vietnam (Kunmakara 2012). Additionally, rank of Vietnam’s market share of exports in Cambodia becomes after Thailand, but Cambodia ranked 13th among Vietnam’s list of 200 export markets (VBN 2011). The investment of the two countries gives more benefits to Vietnam than Cambodia.

Remarkably, Cambodia and Vietnam have emerged from a vulnerable to a more secure stage of development. If compared to twenty years ago, Cambodia and Vietnam were different from this present stage in a number of ways. For what we see, Cambodia and Vietnam have been in a good stage of development and especially the Domestic Economic Development in these two countries has been very pleased. They have developed their economic affairs well and so far both countries have produced tangible results for the sake of their citizens’ well-beings.

Supachai Panitchpakdi, Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Panitchpakdi 2006) states that “SMEs are a source of employment, competition, economic dynamism, and innovation; they stimulate the entrepreneurial spirit and the diffusion of skills. Because they enjoy a wider geographical presence than big companies, SMEs also contribute to better income distribution.” Besides, in Cambodia, according to Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, it has been stated in SME Development Framework of 2005 that “Firms employ between eleven and half a hundred staff and have resources of $50, 000 to a quarter of million dollars are considered as small whereas businesses with 51-200 workers and fixed assets of a quarter of million dollars to a half million dollars are categorized as medium sized.” In contrast, in Vietnam, they definite SME that “SMEs are independent production and business establishments that are duly registered according to the current law provisions, each with registered capital not exceeding VND 10 billion or annual labor not exceeding 300 people.

To start with, Cambodia so far has been developed its domestic economic well. It means that there have been seen smart and medium enterprises taken places along Cambodia countryside. In recent year, especially since the economic reform after the Cold War in 1990s, Economics in Cambodia as well as other countries in South-East region have met a turning point (Garry Rodan, Kevin Hewison, and Richard Robison 2001)

For many years, SMEs have been helping the economics well and are being developed widely in Cambodia and Vietnam. to start with, let’s get to know about SMEs in Cambodia:

In Primary Industry, SMEs have been developing since the colonial era. For example, French introduced Rubber tree to Cambodian land and since that Cambodia started to have its own exportation of rubber. In addition, since the late of 1989s, the time when the communism started to die out, Cambodian understood the important of free market and the efficiency of SME. Businessmen in Cambodia realized how important of the SME and with the newly reform of economic strategies SME were introduced widely to Cambodian and that result a huge successful day for Cambodian nowadays (Garry Rodan, Kevin Hewison, and Richard Robison 2001). For example, there are many small and medium primary industries, especially those in agriculture. Recently, Cambodia has just launched its plan to export rice to the neighboring countries and the world. This proves that Cambodia aim to develop its primary industry by using and combing SMEs. Besides, other crops enterprises, which considered as SME, have been growing as well. To elaborate, in Kampot, there has been such a bank, “Crab Bank[1]”, which helped fishermen to have better life in sea especially with crab. So far, since the creation of this bank, fishermen are really happy and gleeful to have this bank within their community.

Moreover, in Cambodia, tertiary Industry has been developed and motivated by such we call SME too. For instance, there have been huge successful developments in this sector, especially hotels, motel, tour service and other service. Since Cambodia still rely much on Tourism. SMEs are helping to promote Cambodia’s tourism. To elaborate, along the beach in Cambodia territories lie many hotels and motels and huger and bigger ones are being built. In Bokor Mountain, SMEs are built up there. For example, hotels and vacation house are built up there. Besides, in Phnom Penh and other town SMEs are also better and better than many years ago. In the capital city, one is able to find food service such as restaurant – those restaurants lead a growth in employment rate and help fighting poverty. Beside those restaurants there are place such as Dream Land where people can find service provided by SME there and Koh Pich is also one of the most enjoyable place where produced good service by those SMEs. In addition, schools and universities in Cambodia have grown and many were listed. For example, now in Phnom Penh there are many universities such as International School of Phnom Penh, Zaman University and Limkokwing University and some are very modern and highly accepted by other countries. Before there were not many SME in tertiary industry, unlike now we can see that domestic development in Cambodia is on the right track.

Foreign Economic Development between Cambodia and Vietnam

A country’s foreign economic development is considered by focusing on increase of its outward FDI. Theoretically, a country can participate in outward investment only when it has reached a particular level of economic development.  Even though outward foreign direct investment of a developing country remains minimal compared to developed ones, its tendency to gain earnings from outbound investment has been increasing lately which Cambodia and Vietnam can be raised to compare as examples.

Cambodia, one of the LDCs, has become an increasing economic growth country by seeing its rising growth rate from year to year. As a country standing at the early stage of developing, Cambodia has been seeking market access for its overseas investment possibilities in many countries by establishing good relationship with some possible countries, especially with its neighboring countries such as Laos and Vietnam, and it has been trying to integrate its domestic enterprises into the international level meanwhile. For instance, at the third Vietnam-Cambodia investment promotion conference held on June 25, 2012, Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung promised his Cambodian counterpart, Prime Minister Hun Sen, that Vietnam will create favorable conditions for Cambodian companies to invest in the country. However, there has been absence of Cambodia’s outbound investment report so far. Therefore, it can be concluded that Cambodia, with its early born economic growth, has not gained significant earnings from its overseas investments, but primarily, Cambodia has been making efforts to promotion of its export capacities. Cambodia, indeed, has joined some international trade bodies such as WTO in 2007, ASEANFTA in 1999 and a number of agreements between ASEAN and third countries including the ASEAN and Australian and New Zealand (ANZCERTA) FTA, the ASEAN-China FTA, the ASEAN-India FTA, ASEAN-Korea FTA, and ASEAN-Japan FTA, also. These have become so active since 2010.

Unlike Cambodia, by February 2011, Vietnam started its outbound investment for 20 years already (F. I. planning 2011). When Vietnam’s foreign economic growth is considered, there are three phases which have been divided in order to find out its progress clearly. Based on statistics of Vietnam’s outbound investment released by Foreign Investment Agency of Ministry of Investment and Planning, its phase 1 during 1989-1998 had a small quantity. By February 1999, Vietnamese enterprises had invested in only 18 projects abroad with total capital of more than 13.6 million USD, with average capital of 0.76 million USD per project and with reason of enterprises’ imperatives. They started taking advantages of investment abroad with purpose of exploiting its neighboring countries’ natural resources on the basis of bilateral cooperation agreements with Cambodia and Vietnam after exploitation of its own had been prohibited. At phase 2 of its progress during 1999-2005, the number of its overseas projects increased up to 131 with total registered capital of over 559.89 million USD, with average capital of 4.27million USD per project. At the last phase from 2006 till February 2011, it had been booming remarkably by its soaring up to 426 projects conducted overseas with total capital volume of 23,126,510,000 million USD and average capital of 5.429 million USD per project. Only in 2011, Vietnam’s outward investment accounted for 10 billion USD for 601projects in 53 countries including Cambodia where 100 million USD of Vietnam’s capital was invested in Cambodia Angkor Air. Most of them are focused on energy, oil and gas, electricity, mining, handicrafts, forestry agriculture, production and communication (Businesstimes.com.VN n.d.). For example, Vietnam’s second largest outbound investment market is Cambodia, with total investment worth 2.36 billion USD including Vietnam Rubber Group who has implemented 23 projects worth 18 trillion VND in Cambodia. This report was released during the third Vietnam-Cambodia investment promotion conference held on June 25, 2012 (tuoitrenews.vn 2012).

To sum up, foreign economic development between Cambodia and Vietnam is seen far different in terms of their outward investment. Cambodia has not had a remarkable performance in overseas investment like Vietnam has. Therefore, compared to Vietnam, Cambodia has been lagging behind Vietnam in foreign economic development.

Cambodian and Vietnamese Relationship with other nations and regional organizations

Many organizations and investors are gathering into Cambodia and Vietnam because of her better economic condition; especially environment which is the attractive and leading cause for those investors as well as regional and international organizations to switch their attention business attention to this strategically economic country.

In respect to the development and investment opportunity in Cambodia, the foreign diplomacy and policy between the country and the regional organizations is very important. Secondly, legal system has to be put in place to ensure justice and legitimacy during trades and other forms of transactions between the nations. Besides investment, environment which mainly refers to climate change has been seen as one of the most important parts in pre-observing process in each country before starting the investment. On this note, Cambodia and Vietnam share some similarities and differences in three main sectors namely Economy and market system, law, and environment in respect to the relationship with other nations as well as organizations in the region.

Cambodia

Cambodia is member of ASEAN which means that this country started its relationship with other nations in Southeast Asian region. Investors from different countries in the region started to seek for business opportunities in Cambodia. Even though so far Cambodia has been a member of the association, not many companies and organizations have come to this country for gigantic business firms due to Cambodia’s poorly structured market system until Cambodia became a member of WTO in 2004 and opened the country to global marketplace (Guide to Business in Cambodia 2010) which allows international investors to come and invest in this agrarian country. Moreover, after switching to be global market system Cambodian government has one more important role to approve both national and international projects in Cambodia, and the approval was made through the MOC and the CDC ibid. Moreover, Cambodia has joined international and regional investment organizations, signed a number of multilateral conventions and bilateral treaties, and established business-friendly regulations and incentives to generate productive business operations in the country which help boost the speed of development in the nationwide in terms of strengthening such relationships with other nations ibid. Additionally, Cambodia became a member of ACFTA after the initial framework agreement on Nov 4, 2002 in Phnom Penh which the tendency of the ACFTA is to facilitate financial sector of countries in region by extracting benefit from the regional trade agreement (Time 2012). After becoming a member of ACFTA, Cambodia enjoys duty-free privileges for exports and MFN treatment (Guide to Business in Cambodia 2010). There has been some more international cooperation showing good relationship between Cambodia and other nations such as, ASEAN Free Trade Area, ASEAN-China Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement, ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership, ASEAN-Korea Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement and a dozen of other multilateral agreements ibid.

The so-far relationship with other nations and regional organizations not only help to speed up economic growth in Cambodia, but it also influences Cambodian law enforcement. In the ancient time, Cambodian law was influenced by Buddhist tradition and other beliefs ibid. From the time when there were participations from other nations in Cambodia, the way people think about the law is different. For example, in 1979-1989, Vietnamese-Based Communist Model was conducted in Cambodia. During the period, legal system was potentially influenced to Cambodia by Vietnam and their advisors helps to draft Cambodian law. Meanwhile, there was no separation of powers among the executive, judicial and legislative branches of government ibid. From 1991 to 1993, Cambodia was intervened by UNTAC. Following a United Nations-brokered peace agreement in 1991, certain agencies and ministries of the State of Cambodia government was under the supervisory control of UNTAC. Moreover, a number of laws were enacted at that time including a criminal and judiciary law. From 1993 to present, Cambodia becomes Royal Government of Cambodia which the current system combines aspects of the pre-1975 French Civil Code system with legal principles from common systems ibid.

Environmental factor is the problem that all countries in the world are facing and seeking for prevention. Cambodia is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in Asia (UNDP Cambodia 2012). The environmental problem happens from many sources including rapid development and climate change. UNDP works with the Royal Government of Cambodia to strengthen policy, legislative and regulatory mechanisms on biodiversity conservation, sustainable forest management, responses to climate change impacts including adaptation and mitigation and promoting clean and renewable sources of energy ibid. This would be an efficient and practical solution to prevent Cambodia from any disaster happened by climate change because Cambodian people; especially the poor, would be difficult to adapt with the environmental problem happening nowadays. UNDP also supports Cambodia to mobilize funds from the Global Environment Facility to address critical threats such as biodiversity loss, climate change and ozone depletion (UNDP Cambodia 2012).

Vietnam

Vietnam has been in transition from a centrally-planned to a ‘socialist oriented market economy’ since the introduction of the Doimoi reforms in 1986. Poverty rates are now less than 20 percent, down from almost 60 percent in the early 1990s because of GDP growth in the country which is about7.5 percent per year since 2001, reaching a high of 8.5 percent of 2007 (Australian Government n.d.). Goods and services export now is approximately 70 percent of Vietnam’s GDP up from a 30 percent share recorded in the mid 1990s ibid. The GDP growth rate indicates that Vietnam is goods-and-services-export country. The major export destinations in 2009 were the United States, Japan, China and Switzerland, and the top three sources of imports in 2009 were China, Japan and the Republic of Korea ibid. This proofs that Vietnam relationship with other nations mainly refers to business relationship. Besides the financial benefit from business, remittance is also an important factor boosting Vietnamese economic growth. The State Bank of Vietnam estimates remittances from overseas Vietnamese in 2008 exceeded US$7.8 billion. Although remittance plays an important part with the great amount of money, it has fallen in 2009 with the global economic slowdown (Australian Government n.d.). Vietnam is a member of a growing network of free trade agreements, both individually and as part of ASEAN. Vietnam is participating in TPP negotiations with Australia and seven other APEC economies (Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Peru and the US), which began in March 2011 ibid. As part of these negotiations Australia held a Trade Negotiations Capacity Building Seminar in Hanoi on 24-25 November 2010 in conjunction with New Zealand ibid.

Vietnam also suffers from the impact of climate change. Prof. Nguyen Xuan Hoc, Deputy Chairman of the National Committee for Climate Change, said the Mekong River Delta in southwest Vietnam, which has a population of nearly 17.5 million living, is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in Vietnam (VOV ONLINE n.d.). However, Vietnam now has 543 small-and-medium-sized businesses operating in some manufacturing sectors such as bricks, ceramics, and paper, as well as food processing. They are receiving technical and financial support from an energy conservation project which helps them install energy saving technologies in their facilities. The project has saved a total energy amount equivalent to 232,000 tons of oil ibid.

Cambodia and China Trade:

It’s true that Vietnam is the third largest investor of Cambodia but Chinese is number one when talking about trade and aid to Cambodia and to Southeast Asia as a whole. Since the CAFTA went into effect on January 1, 2010, China and the Southeast Asian nations have gradually expanded their areas of cooperation. The Southeast Asian nations that have been least effective in diversifying their economic dependencies—namely Cambodia and Laos—have been particularly receptive to Chinese patronage. Cambodia, which has always maintained close historical and trade relations with China, was one of the first to fall to the Chinese charm (Chen 2010). The bilateral trade between Cambodia and China reached 498 million U.S. dollars in the first quarter of this year, 216 percent rise from 157.5 million U.S. dollars in the same period last year, according to statistics from the ministry of commerce (Xinhua 2011). In the first quarter, Cambodia’s exports to China worth 42 million U.S. dollars, up 342 percent from 9.5 million U.S. dollars in the same period last year, and imports from China reached 456 million U.S. dollars, up 208 percent correspondingly. Cambodia’s main imports from China are garment raw materials, machinery, foodstuff, electronics, furniture, light products, medicines and cosmetics. Cambodia’s main exports to China are agricultural products, rubbers, fish, timbers, some garments and textiles (Xinhua 2011).

Cambodia and U.S. trade:

The United States and Cambodia maintain strong ties through aid and trade. Despite foreign aid restrictions, Cambodia is the third largest recipient of United States assistance in Southeast Asia after Indonesia and the Philippines. Most U.S. assistance has been channeled through the many non-governmental organizations that are active in the country. Also, the United States is the largest overseas market for Cambodian goods, mostly textiles and apparel. Cambodia and other least developed countries are pressing the United States to grant their garment exports preferential treatment. In 2005, the aggregate value of exports of the Cambodian garment and textile industry increased considerably. The value of exports increased to $2.175 billion in 2005, which is 9.66% higher than the previous year. From the beginning of January 2005 to late April 2006, nearly 30,000 new jobs were created in Cambodia’s industry. To illustrate, the total number of employees in the industry sector in April was 293,600. Furthermore, previously in 2005, the U.S. was the main market for Cambodian garment exports. Just over 71% of exports were shipped to the U.S. and 22% to Europe (International Labor Organization 2006).

Vietnam and U.S. trade:

After more than two decades of virtually no economic contact, the United States and Vietnam reestablished trade relations during the 1990s. Since then, Vietnam has rapidly risen to become a significant trading partner for the United States. Bilateral trade has risen from about $220 million in 1994 to $15.7 billion in 2008. Much of this rapid growth in U.S.-Vietnam trade has been attributed to U.S. extension of initially conditional and then later permanent NTR status to Vietnam (F.Martin 2009). The United States and Vietnam concluded a TIFA in 2007. Since then, the United States and Vietnam have held frequent meetings and dialogues under the TIFA to review Vietnam’s implementation of its WTO commitments and consider additional initiatives to further enhance trade and investment opportunities between the two countries. In addition, under the TIFA, the two sides seek to resolve bilateral issues and agree on cooperative activities of mutual interest. Among the key issues discussed in recent meetings have been customs cooperation, Vietnam’s new import licensing regime, telecommunications, environmental issues, sanitary measures inhibiting exports of U.S. beef to Vietnam, and new biotechnology policies being developed by the Vietnamese government. The two sides also discussed IPR enforcement under an IPR working group established under the TIFA to expand further the already close cooperation and coordination efforts between the two countries. The two sides also consulted closely on Vietnam’s plans to reform its labor laws. Vietnam is currently the U.S. 30th largest goods trading partner with $18.6 billion in total (two ways) goods trade during 2010. Goods exports totaled $3.7 billion; Goods imports totaled $14.9 billion. The U.S. good trade deficit with Vietnam was $11.2 billion in 2010 (Office of the United States Trade Representative 2010).

Exports

Vietnam was the United States’ 45th largest goods export market in 2010.U.S. goods exports to Vietnam in 2010 were $3.7 billion, up 19.8% ($613 million) from 2009. The top export categories (2-digit HS) for 2010 were: Machinery ($466 million), Vehicles ($307 million), Food Waste/Animal Feed ($266 million), Iron and Steel Products ($255 million), and Cotton/Yarn/Fabric ($254 million).U.S. exports of agricultural products to Vietnam totaled $1.3 billion in 2010, the 15th largest U.S. Ag export market. Leading categories include: cotton ($253 million), red meats fresh/chilled/frozen ($163 million), dairy products ($158 million), and feeds and fodders ($152 million) (Office of the United States Trade Representative 2010).

Imports

Vietnam was the United States’ 27th largest supplier of goods imports in 2010.U.S. goods imports from Vietnam totaled $14.9 billion in 2010, a 21% increase ($2.6 billion) from 2009.The top imports categories (2-digit HS) for 2010 were: Knit Apparel ($3.4 billion); Woven Apparel ($2.4 billion); Furniture and Bedding ($1.8 billion); Footwear ($1.6 billion); and Electrical Machinery ($808 million).U.S. imports of agricultural products from Vietnam totaled $970 million in 2010. Leading categories include: coffee (unroasted) ($360 million), and tree nuts ($352 million) (Office of the United States Trade Representative 2010).

In conclusion, Vietnam and Cambodia have been developing in a relatively similar way yet Vietnam seems to be ahead forward, especially in terms of trade and market competitiveness since Vietnam has built up a strong economic better tie with the other countries in the region as well as around the globe. Even though Cambodia maintains strong tie trade relationship with the U.S. but her economic cannot compete with Vietnam. According to nation master, the number exports products by Cambodia to US are only $324,800,000.00 and raked 63rd while Vietnam cost two times than Cambodia and ranked 36th. In other words, Vietnam exports products two times to the U.S.  if compared to Cambodia  (NationMaster.com 2006). More importantly, Cambodia’s GDP was $38,890,000,000.00 which ranked 94th in 2006 unlike Vietnam who had GDP six times more than Cambodia in the same year (NationMaster.com 2006).

Bibliography

—. August 18, 2009. http://www.un.int/cambodia/Bulletin_Files/Aug09/Cambodia_Vietnam.pdf (accessed July 4, 2012).

AKP. August 18, 2009. http://www.un.int/cambodia/Bulletin_Files/Aug09/Cambodia_Vietnam.pdf (accessed July 4, 2012).

Asia Economic Institute . http://www.asiaecon.org/special_articles/read_sp/12949 (accessed May 17, 2012).

Association of southeast asian nations . 2011. http://www.aseansec.org/64.htm (accessed May 17, 2012).

Australian Government. n.d. http://www.dfat.gov.au/index.html.

Chan Sophal, Toshiyasu Kato & Long Vou Piseth. “Cambodia: Challenges and Options of Regional

Economic Integration .” Conference Paper, Phnom Penh , 1998.

Chen, Jennifer. “US-China-Cambodia Relations: The trilateral balance .” EastAsiaForum , 2010.

F.Martin, Michael. “U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 111th Congress.” CRS Report for Congress , 2009.

International Labor Organization . May 2006. http://www.betterfactories.org/content/documents/One%20year%20later%20-%20May%2006%20%28en%29.pdf (accessed May 18, 2012).

Kunmakara, May. The Phnom Penh Post. March 3, 2012. http://www.phnompenhpost.com/index.php/2012050355944/Business/trade-with-vietnam-climbs.html (accessed July 4, 2012).

NationMaster.com. 2006. http://www.nationmaster.com/compare/Cambodia/Vietnam/Economy (accessed May 18, 2012).

Nguyen Thi Ngoc Huyen, Bui Anh Tuan. ” Vietnam’s economic development:Opportunities and challenges towards the integration tendency.” Hanoi.

Office of the United States Trade Representative . December 10, 2010. http://www.ustr.gov/countries-regions/southeast-asia-pacific/vietnam (accessed May 18, 2012).

Sok Siphana, Chap Sotharith, Chheang Vannarith. “Cambodia’s Agriculture: Challenges and Prospects.” Workkng Paper, Phnom Penh , 2011.

VBN. November 9, 2011. http://businesstimes.com.vn/vietnam-cambodia-trade-ties-develop-well/ (accessed 7 4, 2012).

Xinhua. “Cambodia, China trade leaps to 498 mln USD in Q1: data.” People’s Daily Online , 2011.

Guide to Business in Cambodia. BNG Legal, 2010.

Time, Beijing. CHINA ECONOMIC NET. March 31, 2012. http://en.ce.cn/Business/Macro-economic/201203/31/t20120331_23206519.shtml.

UNDP Cambodia. March 02, 2012. http://www.un.org.kh/undp/what-we-do/environment-and-energy/environment-and-energy.

VOV ONLINE. n.d. http://english.vov.vn/Home/UNDP-report-on-climate-change-issued-in-Hanoi/20125/137589.vov.

Businesstimes.com.VN.

planning, Foreign Investment Agency: Ministry of investment and. “Table 1: Vietnam’s outward investment according to phases.” 2011.

Planning, Foreign investment agency: Ministry of investment and. Table1: Vietnam’s outward investment according to phases.

tuoitrenews.vn. June 25, 2012.


[1] Crab bank: a bank where fishermen put their crab in and as they are the member, they can have a loan.

Let’s go eat. Where?

Here are my best  and most convenient eating places in Singapore:

1. Subway: enjoy freshly baked bread and crisp veg!

http://www.subway.com.sg/

2. McDonald: eat smart; be active

http://www.mcdonalds.com.sg/

3. Broaster Chicken at 7/11

http://patrick-sim-expert-forex-trader-arbitraged-system.com/food/archives/52

4. Nasi Lemak

http://www.malaysiasite.nl/recipe5.htm

Have a great meal!

Water Supply in Nepal

Posted: March 26, 2011 in Aid Governance

Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project, (First batch STWSSSP)

List of acronyms:

ADB(Asian Development Bank) / CM(Community) /CWC(Civil Works Contractor) / DWSS(Department of Water Supply and Sewerage) /EDC(Engineering Design Consultants) / GN(Government of Nepal) / HHE (Health and Hygiene Education) /MPPW(Ministry of Physical Planning and Works) / NGO(Non-Governmental Organization) / O&M  (Operation and Maintenance) / PIC(Project Implementation Consultant / PMO (Project Management Office) / TDF    (Town Development Fund) / TPO(Town Project Office) / WSS(Water Supply and Sanitation) / WUA(Water User Association) and WUSC(Water User and Sanitation Committee)

Introduction

Surprisingly enough, it is paradoxical that Nepal, the second richest in water due to enough rainfalls and a great number of rivers, has been struggling to provide its people with enough access to secure water supply. Actually, Nepal possesses 2.27% of the world fresh water resources brought by precipitation, groundwater and runoff. With an area of 147.181 square kilometers, Nepal as a landlocked country can afford to store only 36% of the rainfall during the rainy season while another 64% of the rainfall goes immediately as surface runoff.  Of the remaining 36%, some is converted as snow in high Himalayas while the rest becomes groundwater, acting as natural reservoir to feed the river system in the dry season. As a densely mountainous country, Nepal causes geographical difficulties to its own people in getting enough and safe drinking water. As a matter of fact, Nepal faces its unfortunate fate that its people have been dying of and for water in this country where political turmoil has been slowing down its developments in all sectors. However, after the overthrow of the monarchy, Nepal is now in a process of building up a democratic government, resulting in getting back all types of businesses and infrastructure developments on track to boost up cultural, social and economic welfare for the sake of the whole nation. Upon seeing the substantial consequences of water to its own people, Nepal has set water challenges as its priority to cope with and has therefore been attempting to facilitate as many humanitarian projects funded by either bilateral or multilateral donors as possible to improve the Nepali people’s living standard by all means of appropriate technologies dealing with water treatment.

Problem Analysis: Pockets of exclusion

Remarkably, the democratization process allows the local government to activate and reinforce many existing projects funded by either bilateral or multilateral donors to continue their own efforts in bringing safe water to Nepali people. These projects have been struggling to bring Nepali people together to work on the same page of these initiatives since there are a few crucial issues around social harmony and participation in recent development stages of economic, political, cultural and social infrastructures within Nepal. Simply put, Nepal has been facing its own civic war of social and political interests (Maoist and caste systems) and beliefs (e.g. Hindu and social developments), leading to social exclusion which is seen through inequality of social caste, ethnicity and gender though the caste system was officially once claimed to be eliminated in 1963. In her working paper, Alexandra Geiser found out that it was a political failure not to involve Dalits¹, ethnic groups, women and other underprivileged groups into political mainstream after 1990. As a result, there has been social disappointment between the groups of elite people and the groups of (so-called) disadvantaged people, leading to different social exclusion, discrimination and suppression. In this sense, the disadvantaged people are put aside from any development benefits and processes (Geiser, 2005). In addition, natural disadvantages remain as barriers to preventing donors or any water projects from bringing safe water to Nepali people. To be precise, there are some natural challenges along the way ranging from project planning to implementation.

First, environmental contamination is a root cause of spreading a number of infectious diseases (such as dysentery, typhoid, hepatitis, cholera and guinea worm disease and so forth) from one Nepali to another. Moreover, since Nepal has more than 6.000 rivers connecting each other by various water routes, some harmful and arsenic materials such as heavy metals and pesticides can reach those water basins quickly through the connecting routes; as a result, the quality of the water is contaminated and deteriorated dramatically.

Second, the rivers are being polluted by human wastes or open defecation and other harmful unsanitary disposals and agricultural practices. It is clear that human’s activities do harm the healthiness of those rivers. In this sense, Nepal can be in troubles of dealing with its own population growth which seems to be rapid in Nepal.

Third, due to some technical problems with studies, designs and maintenance of dug wells, these wells become non-functional, especially in the Terai regions. It happens to these wells because there is no monitoring and repair schedule which is reckoned as beyond affordability in regards of manpower and cost. As a result, pollution, contamination and poor quality of water are remaining a big challenge for Nepali people.

Fourth, the capability and affordability to improve water treatment seem to be infeasible and hard to manage in a community level since there is a need of much more details, in-depth investigation and research to find out the optimal and technical solutions to deal with the substantiality of damage over the water issues.

To sum up, both bilateral and multilateral donors are struggling to help improve quality of water and provide enough safe water for the Nepali people because there is a lack of social participation and harmony which is caused mainly by social differences of interests and beliefs and inequality of caste, ethnicity and gender while Nepal has been facing challenging natural disadvantages.

STWSSSP evaluation: analytical tools

With an annual high statistics of 45.000 children who die of unsanitary-water-related causes, Government of Nepal has been facilitating many humanitarian projects, one of which is Small Town Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project, to provide the Nepali people with more conveniences and safety in consuming water for their daily needs and wants. STWSSSP is a 6-year project under financial assistance from ADB to provide water supply, limited drainage and sanitation facilities in approximately 45 towns with average population of about 12 thousands. Owned and operated by a community, the project is a community-based demand and takes responsive approach, whose design is based on cost sharing and partial recovery basis. Its capital cost consists of ADB loan, community contribution and government grant. Local tariff system is employed to cover all O&M, loan repayment and the system expansion where is necessary for some communities.

Though STWSSSP is aimed at improving WSS facilities in small towns, the project areas cover only some emerging towns who can meet some required basic criteria. In figure 1, those towns, who can unanimously contribute a minimum of 20% of construction cost; 30% of operation cost within 12 to 15 years; and other cost related such as tariff rate for each individual’s consumption, are considered eligible for the project’s assistance. In this regards, among 209 towns that are identified by GN and STWSSSP as areas to improve their WSS facilities, only 45 towns (approximately 21.5%) are paid attentions to. In other words, STWSSSP has left out the other 164 towns (78.5%) whose WSS facilities are also in needs of assistance and promotion.  From these selection criteria, STWSSSP cannot reach out to the people who are in real needs of water because of geographical, administrative and financial challenges.

After the completion of the first batch of STWSSSP (see figure 2 for working area towns), according to WASH news Asia & Pacific; the ADB’s Board of Directors express more efforts from STWSSSP to bring Nepal closer to achieving MDGs for environmental sustainability. With financial support and approval of the second batch of STWSSSP, the Board is expecting the second batch STWSSSP to bring more health and hygiene benefits to the Nepali residents by reducing waterborne diseases. Norio Saito, who is Urban Development Specialist of ADB, said that there seriously needs to be a timely improvement of water supply and sanitation services in small towns since there are some potential emerging towns due to internal urbanization which is caused by lack of job opportunities in rural areas. According to a progress report from UNDP, the availability of water in Nepal is still intermittent in many areas and many WSS facilities are in needs of repairs and maintenance while water pollution and contamination remains an obstacle, especially in the bordering area with India (Pacific, 2009).

Stakeholder analysis: Social exclusion, implementation agencies, and bilateral and multilateral donors

WUSC is the core player involving all stages of the project ranging from planning and development to post implementation. As shown in figure 3, WUSC is to initiate the needs and demands of a community and then work other stakeholders to cope with those demands.To start doing the project, WUSC is to sign a town project agreement with PMO and TDF and community action plan prepared with support of NGOs. WUSC is to tender, bid evaluation and supervise construction. Moreover, WUSC, together with NGOs, EDC and PMO, is obliged to establish the scope of the project.

In figure 4, NGO is the second most active in the process since it plays a role as social mobilize and educator. More specifically, NGO is in charge of HHE which is to educate Nepali people how to live healthily with their use of water and other daily activities. Moreover, TDF is much involved in both implementation and post implementation process rather than in planning and development. Interestingly, PMO seems to withdraw itself from post implementation process since it has carried out its part in the first two main parts. Amazingly, STWSSSP is implemented in hard times in Nepal where there is social inequality of cast, ethnic and gender. Moreover, the project seems to struggle its best to resist against natural disadvantages in Nepal. Also, it is carried out in times of political unrest in this landlocked nation. As a result, STWSSSP implementers and donors have been working really hard to bring the residents of different interests and beliefs together to achieve its goal which is bring safe water to the community. In addition, the political instability causes disruption to the preparation and construction of many subprojects within the communities. Through ups and downs, the project makes some progress in ensuring water quality and sanitation practices in 6 communities where the other two namely Birendrangar and Lekhnath are still far behind since the construction is still in the progress.

As shown in figure 5, there are some stakeholders who are not in a good position to carry out their own area of responsibilities. Simply put, NGOs seem to be in their hard time to bring Nepali people together to work out the project because of the social inequality in the caste system, ethnic and gender. At the same time, Dalit and women themselves also fail to achieve their own rights of social participation and equality. Moreover, EDCs have to conduct a more proper study and research on the geographical and natural disadvantages in Nepal before they come up with a concrete project design. As a result, the poor design from EDC leads to a poor construction work by CWCs.

Recommendations:

In general, STWSSSP has saved a number of lives in Nepal through its effort in bringing safe water to Nepali people. There has been some improvement in this sector since the beneficiaries have relatively good quality water for their daily consumption. However, the project has some weaknesses to consider. Since social inequality of the caste system, ethnic and gender is a big enemy to social harmony and participation, there is a strong need in supporting, networking and coordinating within the Dalit, ethnic and women’s movements to enforce their social position, voice and influence in development stages. In the meantime, integrating these excluded groups into project planning and implementation is highly recommended for better and more peaceful development results. More importantly, cost recovery, local tariff and more participation of women are substantially important to sustain the small town project. Due to the geographical and natural disadvantages in Nepal, any project design requires in-depth study and research before setting off. Since there is some inconsistency among some important stakeholders, the design process must be streamlined from the very first beginning of the project. In addition, since WUSC plays a very crucial role in all stages, especially in community level, offering financial autonomy to WUSC to handle is vital for more effective implementation and therefore sustainability of the project. In this stage, needs assessment and overall feasibility have to be carried out in a much more detailed in order to give the thing to the right people at the right time.   Some more minor but important issues to consider:

  • Concerning bodies have to twice of how to manage liquid waste and sewerage system.
  • Water quality test has to be done regularly and intensively.
  • Private tap connection should be increased for the residents ‘conveniences.
  • For actual consumption purpose, reading meters have to be taken a good care of or change when necessary.
  • 24 hour water supply has to be insured.

In conclusion, STWSSSP is considered as a moderately successful because of a more reliability of service, technology assistance, financial status and positive trends towards sustainability. Of all these achievements, technical issues dealing with quality of water and sustainability of the project are the two remaining challenges for the project’s status quo. I believe that financial assistance through a more effective cost recovery method and fund raising could be a good idea to help release the beneficiaries’ burden since they are too poor to afford for their daily water consumption. Moreover, a more advanced technology is strongly recommended for better means to cope with the so challenging geographical and natural features in Nepal. In the meantime, social inequality of the caste system, ethnic: Dalit, and gender has to be tackled for the sake of social harmony and participation for further developments in this landlocked nation.

Footnotes:

¹The term “Dalit” is used to refer to poor and oppressed people and to mean “untouchable”

Bibliography

Geiser, A. (2005). Social Exclusion and Conflict Transformation in Nepal: Women, Dalit and Ethnic Groups. Sonnenbergstrasse: Swisspeace.

Devkota, D. D. (2007, December 24). Nepal water and sanitation. Retrieved November 07, 2009, from http://www.nepal.watsan.net/page/398

Pacific, W. n. (2009, October 14). Retrieved November 07, 2009, from http://washasia.wordpress.com/2009/10/14/nepal-adb-project-to-improve-water-supply-and-sanitation-services-in-small-towns/

Annexes:

Figure 1.1: Financing plan

Figure 1.2: Summary of project cost in million US$ (1)

S.N. Description Foreign Exchange Local Currency Total Cost
I Part A: Public Awareness Campaign & HHE 2.28 2.28
Part B: Water Supply and Sanitation Facilities 28.15 14.17 42.32
Part C:Technical Support 0.33 0.14 0.47
Part D: Project Implementation Assistance 0.51 7.61 8.12
Sub-Total(I) 28.99 24.20 53.19
II Interest during Construction 0.68 0.68
Total 29.67 24.20 53.87
Percentage 55.085 44.92% 100%

Figure 1.3: Summary of project cost in million US$ (2)

S.N. Cost Items Cost (US$’000) ADB Government Local Government WUSC
% US$’000 % US$’000 % US$’000 % US$’000
1. Civil Works
i. Water Supply 40200 60 24120 20 8040 20
ii. Public Sanitation and Drainage 2288 80 1830 0 20 458
iii. Private Latrines 1100 0 50 550 50 550
2. Equipment and Vehicles 1050 90 945 10 105
3. Consulting Services and Training 5006 90 4505 10 501
4. NGO’s Services 1179 90 1061 10 118
5. Incremental Administrative Expenses 2366 70 1656 30 710
6. Interest During Construction 680 100 680
TOTAL 53869 64.6 34797 18.6 10023 0.85 458 15.95 8590

Figure 2.1: First batch town areas and their status

No. of Project 0% → 25% 26% → 50% 51% → 75% 76% → 100%
8 0 2 3 3

Figure 2.2: List of towns



Figure 3: Project Governance Overview (1)

Figure 4: Project Governance Overview (2)

Figure 5: first batch STWSSSP: stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder Interests/responsibilities Likely impact of the activity
ADB Providing loan assistance and guidance +
CWCs Construction work _
DWSS Implementation agency, achieve sector objective of GN which is to achieve sustained improvement in safe water and therefore health status of the Nepali people _
EDCs Overall Engineering design and supervision: incorporate service area of the project and design and feedbacks _
Nepal residents Receive services, HHE and social development +
NGOs Working with WUSC to facilitate overall social mobilization, public awareness campaign HHE _
PIC Support overall management of STWSSSP; working with PMO and EDC to streamline design approach and assumptions +
PMO Overall project management; detail engineering report/tender documents in collaboration with EDC; invite CWCs +
Social exclusion: Dalits and women Call for social participation and equality _
TDF Management of 30% ADB loan to Users and pay back; working with PMO and WUSC to provide evaluation and award of construction +
TPOs Implementation of individual town projects +
WUAs Coordination of users participation and arrangement of O&M of projects +
WUSC Working with NGO and EDC to assess needs and demands +

The Philippine: Mutual Accountability in Ensuring Aid Governance


List of acronyms

ADB(Asian Development bank) / AusAid(Australian Agency for International Development) /PBA(Program-based approach)/ DFID(Department for International Development) / G-Watch(Government Watch) /JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) / NGO(Non-Governmental Organization) / OECD(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) / PIU(Project implementation unit) / USAID(United States Agency for International Development) and WB(World Bank)

What is Mutual Accountability?

To improve the quality of aid, both donors and partner countries have to fulfill a satisfied level of five dimensions namely ownership, alignment, harmonisation, result and mutual accountability. Among these five dimensions, mutual accountability is believed to play a really crucial role in developing trust and partnership. For instance,  Rebecca recommends that mutual accountability in all levels in Afghanistan be improved and that all aid actors and shareholders should be accountable to one another to achieve greater aid effectiveness (Roberts, 2009).However, this fifth dimension is “the last and probably the least recognised of the five focus areas in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.” (Renzio, 2008). Mutual accountability is also viewed as a mechanism to keep any nations with responsibilities under check while carrying out their tasks (OECD, 2009). More importantly, mutual trust and accountability between donors and partner countries are seen as “a crucial step in getting better development results.” (Ibid.)

On the Third High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, Mutual accountability is defined as:

…a process by which two (or multiple) partners hold one another responsible for the commitments that they have voluntarily made to each other. But it is also more than that. It is a process through which commitment to, and ownership of, shared agendas is created and reinforced by: building trust and understanding; shifting incentives towards results in and openness to external scrutiny for assessing results in relation to goals.” (OECD, 2009) (Figure One)

History to consider:

In an abstract of Accountability Discussion Series of two guest speakers, Professor Aries Arugay and Former Welfare Secretary Corazon Juliano-Soliman, the Philippines became a new nation in a combination of “accountability regime” and “a powerful civil society” after the collapse of Estrada’s administration in 2001. Apparently, Julius Court points out that a mobile phone is the symbol of success for the People Power II revolution in the Philippines since a mobile phone allowed Filipinos to text information about the previous President Joseph Estrada’s corruption, cronyism and incompetence to one another. Amazingly, when the Filipinos acknowledged the message all around the country, they came up with the idea to remove Estrada from his position in just 88 hours of impeachment. This marked the end of the non-transparent and unaccountable administration of the previous leader, Estrada.  Also, the mobile phone technology, which allowed the Filipinos to have a poll to see what should unanimously be done to better their existing situations, marked social strength of civil society in the Philippines. In their abstract for the Discussion Series, Aries and Corazon further emphasize that the pursuits for accountability have become one of the most important country development components for the next leader, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

Current status of Mutual Accountability in the Philippines

Based on 2008 survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration, the Philippines is still suffering from its own accountability mechanism in both national and international level in ensuring truly effective aid. Similar to the case of Afghanistan, the Philippines is required to have a stronger or more balanced accountability mechanism at all levels to achieve greater aid effectiveness.

Pinoypress dated March 5, 2008 illustrated that there was an international study which showed that the Philippine lacks transparency and accountability in aid disbursement. Based on the international study, this popular news website confirmed Rodolfo¹ Noel Lozada Jr.’s description about official development assistance (ODA) as a “dysfunctional” system.

Apparently, a sythesis report² from NEDA on preliminary findings in the country level shows that the local government has been committed in understanding both existing and possible barriers to successful implementation of Paris Declaration by attempting to have mutual ODA reviews with Develoment partners. The report illustrates the implementation has often been delayed due to budgetary contrains or tax treatment of ODA funds. In some cases, the whole prject was suspended because of the two extreme contrains.

According to Cai U. Ordinario, the Philippines has been far behind all the agreements set in the PDP on Aid Effectiveness. A baseline study undertaken by the government focuses on the government’s performance itself in meeting the 12 indicators set in the PDP. The result of the study reports that the 12th indicator, Availability of Mechanism for Mutual Assessment of Progress, was ignored. As a result, the 2008 survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration recommends that the Philippine establish a system for mutual assessment. (Figure Two)

One of the components of social accountability is access information. By the Philippine’s constitution, the right to information is guaranteed. However, after its 20-year ratification, the Filipinos have been struggling to exercise their own right since the right is at the discretion of government officials (Allana, 2009). Due to the lack of access to information, Cai U.Ordinario realizes that some progress has been made in the 12 indicators in the PDP, but she cautions that the Philippines is still on a long road to better information dissemination and capacity building. She stresses that access to information is needed to achieve the PDP’s objective in attaining transparency and accountability for both donors and the Philippines itself. Moreover, Cai U. Ordinario admits that the Philippines has slightly improved the 3rd indicator, Aid Flows are Aligned on National Priorities. The reason behind the slight improvement is simply related to information dissemination about the aid.

Regarding aid flows, the 2008 survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration has pointed out that the Philippines lacks recording system which leads to inaccurate government estimates of aid flows. This survey recommends to donors, especially the bilateral ones, that they improve efforts in three areas: coordinating aid through PBAs; conducting joint missions and country analytical work; and reducing the number of parallel PIUs. (Figure Three)

Challenges:

  1. Mutual accountability within the Philippines and with bilateral multilateral donors is a very big issue and strongly needed to enhance public service in general, especially aid effectiveness.
  2. As in 2008 survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration, the Philippines has been receiving variable development partner supports. Corruption is the main factor which has been threatening the government’s ability to secure increased donor support (USAID/PHILIPPINES STRATEGY FY 2005-2009, 2005). As a result, the predictability and availability of aid are out of the country’s control.
  3. Corruption is an old story which is deeply remaining in the society. Corruption has been constraining fully competitive market, generating inefficiencies, and undermining public capacity and confidence in the government (USAID/PHILIPPINES STRATEGY FY 2005-2009, 2005). Moreover, corruption has been a long-lasting enemy to good governance³, and therefore, development has been slow.
  4. Human right abuse is closely related to corruption. These two issues hinder donors in their efforts to give more aid to the Philippines. President Barak Obama urged to withdraw military aid to the Philippines due to human right abuse. The US State Department report showed that there has been a persistence of human right abuses under the Arroyo’s regime. Those abuses include extrajudicial and political killings, especially of journalists (Pinoypress.net, 2009).
  5. By constitution, access to information is guaranteed, but it has been remaining at discretion of public officials. Consequently, transparency, accountability and mutual assessment between donors and the Philippines have not been fully established.

Horizontal dimension of accountability in the Philippines

The Philippines is notorious for its corrupt public administration and officials. Therefore, the check and balance approach among and within the internal government institutions is unlikely to improve aid flow and co-ordination between the local government and multilateral and bilateral donors. However, the Philippines is unique since its civil society has had a firm stand in any development process.

Vertical dimension of accountability in the Philippines

Civil society is known as the world most dynamic and participatory development body in the Philippines (Clarke, 1998).  Remarkably, the Civil Society has been effectively generating accountability to some certain extent in the nation. Therefore, the Civil Society has to play a crucial role to act as a bridge between the citizens and the local government in the Philippines and bilateral and multilateral donors in achieving more aid effectiveness. (Figure Four and Five)

A network of Philippine civil society groups has confirmed that it takes a long way forward for the world’s poor to truly benefit from foreign aid (Civilization of Love, 2008). According to Dr Giovanni Tapang, AidWatch Philppines convenor and Chair of the Council for People’s Development and Governance, aid has not yet been effective ever since 2003 despite the signing of Paris Declaration. He mentioned that one of the reasons for the poor performance was that the donors and the recipient country failed to recognise how democratic ownership and human rights can ensure better aid process. From this, it can be infered that both the local government and the donors failed to stick to their individual accountability, or their mutual accountability was unclearly defined. In other words, the donors and the local government should have paid greater attention to how much involvement and what to account for in the aid process in order to avoid miscommunication and overlapping areas of responsibilities during their work process.

Recommendation

Recommendation 1: both access to information be reinforced and a recording system be established  to ensure better aid flows

Arguably, due to lacks or inaccessibility of information on aid flows, the local Filipinos cannot hold their government accountable for what they are doing with the aid from both bilateral and muliteral donors. Dispite the facts that access to information is guaranteed by the constitution, this right has been ignored. The Philippines should take a case of Canada as the example. Newfoundland and Labrador is ranked as the best information leader across the country  (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador-Canada, 2006).  For the success in providing information to its people, Minister Marshall admits that “everyone deserves a pat on the back, however, we (the government) certainly have room to grow and we need to build on this success to ensure we continue to lead the country in providing our citizens with access to information.” Moreover, the Philippines needs to build up a reliable recording system on aid flows as part of improving access to information for both the people and the donors. So far, the Philippines has been giving inaccurate information on aid flows to its donors; as a consequence, the donors in return give variable support which is an another existing challenge to the nation’s development.

Recommendation 2: make the government’s internal insitutions accountable

There have been examples from many countries in which their local people use vertical solutions to deal with horizontal problems related to accountability enhancement.  In Pakistan in 2007, Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, a chief justice of the supreme court, used his cell phone from his home to call for a gathering of 500 lawyers to protest against the consolidation of power by the Pervez Musharraf’s government who wished to eliminate the opposition. Later in 2008, the chief justice was welcome back to his position which was regarded as a victory to hold the government accoutable to the social facts (Robert Faris and Bruce Etling, 2008). In this case, Robert and Bruce made it clear that the social active participation of civil society and NGOs was crucial in mediating the seperation of power within the government institutions and agencies. Similarly, in the Philippines itself, the civil society has been really dynamic and active in figuring out black or white issues in the government. As the historical examples, the movement of People Power I and II which remove their presidents from the position can be crystal clear that the civil society with assitance from digital technology can truly hold their government accoutable for the development of their country. From the two mentioned examples and others in Robert and Bruce’s work4, it is very likely that the civil society can enhance mutual accountability on aid effectiveness and distribution for their people by promoting transparency and accoutability withing the government’s internal institutions.

Recommendation 3: corruption needs much greater care and attention to deal with

As mentioned above, corruption produces countless inefficiencies, undermines public confidences and trust and hinders mutual accountability on aid effectiveness in the Philippines. Suggested by Larry Diamond, corruption can be controlled, if not completely eliminated. On Building a System of Comprehensive Accountability to Control Corruption, Larry believes that good governance comprising accountability can surely reduce the volume of corruption to some extent. In this regard, the 3rd recommendation can ensured to work best when the 2nd recommendation has succeeded in a certain level. Larry stresses that it takes everyone to sacrifice their own advantage for the sake the whole nation development. In his exact words, Larry states that “ordinary citizens will sacrifice immediate advantages for the longer-term common good only when they believe that their fellow citizens will as well.” He further mentions that when the governement itself attempts to enhance transparency and disciplines, the government can gain more public trust and confidence. In his work, Larry proposed his comprehensive system of accoutability instittutions of accountability of three forms as follows:

Horizontal Accountability refers to a mechanism to hold different government’s agencies accountable to the law and the public interest. One of the primary agencies of horizontal accountability is a counter-corruption commission.

Vertical Accountability would refer to the means by which the people, community and civil society as a whole, from below, to hold their government answerable for their conduct during carrying out their work. He believes that democracy would be an ideal country system to allow such a social movement from the grassroots.

External Accountability is ideally a pressure from international actors over the local government to be responsible for the quality of their governance and the well-being of the people.

Recommendation 4: an international accountability mechanism be full established

Following the idea of Larry Diamond, the Philippines has to consider the “External Accountability” which the Philippines has to hold itself accountable in an interantional stage. To enhance accountabitity, the first step is to identify the right framework (James Droop, Paul Isenman and Baki Mlalazi, 2008). These three authors believe that the international aid agenda and the Paris Declaration should be considered as the “colaborative” framework of accountability. The three authors propose an accountability mechanisms for donor and partner performance in Figure Six.

The three authors suggest four elements to reflect the framework as follows:

Evidence: it refers to a measurement of technical credibility. Basically, this idea measure how much improvement in definition, quality, clarity, independence and transparecy of performance information within the recipient country. Also, this idea can help reflect the current status of accountability in the whole country.

Ownership: it is the key factor a the collaborative framework in ensuring the importance of building and sustaining consent, commitment, credibility, trust and common values between the donors and the recipient countries.

Debate: it involves formal and informal meachansims to provide one another reasiong of the current performance. This would illustrate mutual explanation why  certain development has been made.

Behavior change: it is a mechanism of result from carrying out the three initial dimensions namely Evidence, Ownership and Debate.

Jame, Paul and Baki believe that the four dimensions serve as a reinforcing factors between the donors and the recipient countries when it comes to dealing with holding one another accountable for their individual conducts.

Conclusion

The Philippines is a really potential country to generate aid effectiveness  especially in the area of mutual accountability between the government and the people and its donors since the civil society in the Philippines has been really strong in terms of social voice. The civil society, in the Philippine history, has achieved great victories in removing their presidents from the position due to some misconduct such as corruption, cronyism and incompetence. As now the Philippines is still in time of human right abuse, violation of constitution and corruption within the government’s internal institutions; the civil society has to play a much more crucial role in fighting for social accountability, transparency and justice to ensure social stability and development in the Philippines. The nation will develop dramatically when the above-mentioned social illnesses are paid greater attention to while adequate and timely aids and supports from both bilateral and multilateral donors to the Philippines have been increasing to the proportion of success in achieving a certain satisfaction level of good governance in the whole country.

Footnotes:

¹He is CEO of the Philippine Forest Corporation and is an electronics and communications engineer. He was referred to as a “secret witness” in the senate inquiry on the ZTE deal.

²The evaluation in the report was carried out by Dr Dante B. Canlas Ms Lirio T. Abuyuan and Dr Jaime Z. Galvez-Tan in July, 2008 under NEDA’s authority

³Larry Diamond suggests 5 components of good governance: capacity of the state; commitment to the public goods; transparency and accountability; rule of law; and civic participation. He believes that good governance promotes development.

4-The 11-day protest against the election result in Ukrain in 2004

– The case of Internet-based radio station, Radio B-92, in Serbia

– The case of television stations in Pakistan and Venezuela

– The United States Senator George Allen during his 2006 campaign

– The influence of OhmyNews on the 2002 presidential election in South Korea

– In Cuba, digital information is collected online passes from one person to another using memory stick

– 365 marches organized by a Facebook Group, the largest protest in Colombian history.

– Yochai Benkler’s theory and impact on “networked public spheres”

– Iqbal Quadir’s case for promoting better governance by delegating power from the states to individuals assisted by the information and communication technology

– and etc…

Bibliography

OECD. (2009). Mutual Accountability. ISSUES BRIEF 1 , 1-2.

Renzio, P. d. (2008). Mutual Accountability: Issues and Challenges. Brief prepared for FRIDE Seminars on “Democratic Ownership and Mutual Accountability” , 1.

Juliano-Soliman, A. A. (2008). Accountability Discussion Series. From Protest to Participation to Disengagement. Center for Social Policy Ateneo School of Government .

Court, J. (n.d.). Retrieved September 23, 2009, from http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3147.pdf

Roberts, R. (2009). Improving Mutual Accountability for Aid Effectiveness. Policy Note Series , 1-2.

Ordinario, C. U. (2008, February 26). Retrieved September 24, 2009, from IBON Europe: http://ibon.be/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=45

Pinoypress.net. (2008, March 05). Retrieved September 24, 2009, from Pinoypress: http://www.pinoypress.net/2008/03/05/philippiness-problems-with-aid-go-beyond-lack-of-transparency-accountability/

Organisation For Economic Co-operation and Developmet. (2008). Retrieved September 24, 2009, from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/53/59/41952105.pdf

Pinoypress.net. (2009, February 27). Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://www.pinoypress.net/2009/02/27/obama-urged-to-withdraw-military-aid-to-philippines-due-to-human-rights-abuses/

Robert Faris and Bruce Etling. (2008, summer). Madison and the Smart Mob: The Promise and Limitations of the Internet for Democracy. Vol.32:2 , 77.

Diamond, L. (2003). Building a System of Comprehensive Accountability to Control Corruption. 4-6.

Dr Dante B. Canlas Ms Lirio T. Abuyuan and Dr Jaime Z. Galvez-Tan. (2008). Evaluation of the Implementation of the Paris Declaration: Case Study of the Philippines. NEDA.

Clarke, G. (1998). The Politics of NGOS in South-East Asia Participation and protest in the Philippines. Great Britain: Routledge.

Civilization of Love. (2008, March 03). Retrieved September 26, 2009, from http://frjessie.wordpress.com/2008/09/03/aidwatch-philippines/

(2005). USAID/PHILIPPINES STRATEGY FY 2005-2009. USAID/Philippines.

James Droop, Paul Isenman and Baki Mlalazi. (2008). Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness: Study of Existing Mechanisms to Promote Mutual Accountability (MA) between Donors and Partner Countries at the International Level. Oxford Policy Management.

Annexes

Figure One: Language used to describe roles in accountability relationships

Agent being held accountable Agent asking for answers and enforcing sanctions
A B
Supply-side Demand-side
Duty-bearer Rights-holders
Accountee Accounter

Source: UNDP Voice, Accountability and Civic Engagement by Bhavna Sharma

Figure Two: Challenges and priority actions for the Philippines

DIMENSIONS 2007 CHALLENGES PRIORITY ACTIONS
Ownership High Fiscal limitation to implement development plan; reforms not evenly adopted across government Government to prioritise actions and continue mainstreaming reforms
Alignment Moderate Large portion of aid not recorded on the budget as some aid flows do not require appraopriations; progress needed on predictability, untying and reducing parallel PIUs. Improve information sharing and capture on aid; continue reforms to improve public financial management (PFM) and procurement systems
Harmonisation Low Variable commitment to PBAs; slow progress toward joint evaluatioins Bi-lateral donors to increase aid through PBAs; major donors to increase joint missions
Managing for results Moderate Lack of clarity of management of new systems; monitoring and evaluation processes not fully developed Complete roll-out of new systems; develop further monitoring and evaluation processes where necessary
Mutual accountability Moderate Development partner support variable Establish a system for mutual assessment

Source: 2008 survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration

Figure Three: Progress since 2005 and Priorities for 2010 in summary

INDICATORS 2007 2010 TARGET
1 Operational development strategies Not available Not applicable
2a Reliable public financial management (PFM) systems Not available Not applicable
2b Reliable procurement systems C B
3 Aid flows are aligned on national priorities 51% 85%
4 Strengthen capacity by co-ordinated support 89% 50%
5a Use of country PFM systems 68% 70%
5b use of country procurement systems 64% Not applicable
6 Strengthen capacity by avoiding parallel PIUs 33 31%
7 Aid is more predictable 78% 85%
8 Aid is untied 46% More than 63%
9 Use of common arrangements or procedures 32% 66%
10a Joint missions 21% 40%
10b Joint country analytical work 33% 66%
11 Results-based monitoring frameworks Not available Not applicable
12 Mutual accountability No Yes

Source: 2008 survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration

Figure Four: civil society as a representative for the Filipinos

Figure Five: Main accountability structure in aid relationships

Source: ODI Promoting Mutual Accountability in Aid Relationships by Poalo de Renzio

Figure Six: Mapping accountability mechanisms for donor and partner performance

Source: Final Report on Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness: Study of Existing Mechanisms to Promote Mutual Accountability (MA) Between Donors and Partner Countries at the Internatinal level by James Droop, Paul Iseman and Baki Mlalazi

Some pics

Posted: March 26, 2011 in THIS & THAT